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Past Carr Center Fellows

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Past Fellows:
2011/2012 |  2010/2011 |  2009/2010 |  2008/2009 |  2007/2008 |  2006/2007 |  2005/2006 | 
2004/2005 |  2003/2004 |  2002/2003 |  2001/2002 |  2000/2001 |  1999/2000

2011 / 2012 Fellows
Sahana Dharmpuri Sahana Dharmapuri is an independent gender advisor with over a decade of experience providing policy advice and training on gender, peace, and security issues to USAID, NATO, The Swedish Armed Forces, The United States Institute for Peace, international development consulting firms, and NGOs. Ms. Dharmapuri is the creator of the Carr Center's Gender and Security Seminar series, which she has led since 2011. She has lectured on gender and security issues at a wide variety of institutions including, USAID, Harvard University, the State Department's Foreign Service Institute, the Swedish Armed Forces International Training Center, NATO, and at three of the major U.S. combat and command centers. Her field experience includes Liberia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Israel and the Palestinian Territories, India, Uzbekistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Ms. Dharmapuri served as the gender advisor on conflict and complex emergency situations for the Office of Women in Development at USAID from 2003 to 2006. She was an Investing in Women in Development Fellow at USAID from 2003-2005. Prior to her work at USAID, she worked in Washington, DC at The Ashoka Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship, The Fair Labor Association, and the Center for Middle East Peace. Ms. Dharmapuri was selected to be a member of the American Council of Young Political Leaders in 1999. She received both of her Masters Degrees (a Masters in Middle East Studies and a Masters in Public Policy) from the University of Chicago in 1997. Sahana is a member of the US Civil Society Working Group on the US National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security. She is currently a board member of Made by Survivors, an anti-trafficking organization dedicated to caring for survivors of trafficking.

Guila Kessous Guila Clara Kessous leads the Carr Center's Initiative in Theater and Human Rights. She is the recipient of the State Diploma of Performing Arts among other awards, Kessous acted, directed and produced in major theatres in the US and Europe. She conceives drama as a socially conscious reflection pervading multiple aspects of society and culture. Her approach to theater as a cultural marker is multifaceted. She received a PhD in ethics and aesthetics under the mentorship of E. Wiesel, an MBA in cultural business, and a cross-disciplinary MA in comparative dramaturgy, cinema, and pedagogy. She has taught at Harvard, Boston University, the Sorbonne, and the Wiesel Institute. Her sponsors include UNESCO (director, "Hilda"), the UN (director, "Tribute to Human Rights"), and the CNRS among others. She has collaborated with artists including John Malkovich, James Taylor, Marissa Berenson, Daniel Mesguich, and Theodore Bikel.

In 2010, she partnered with the United Nations on the theme "Theater and Human Rights" and was awarded the "Chevalier Arts et Lettres" from the French Minister of Culture. In 2011, UNESCO named her an "Artist for Peace" giving her the opportunity to collaborate directly with francophone countries spanning three different continents on the Mediterranean project.

Carolina Larriera Carolina Larriera has a decade of experience working at the United Nations, at the headquarters in New York, and on UN missions to East Timor and Iraq. In East Timor, she was engaged in the development and transformation of small government divisions into fully-fledged ministries, her mission ending with the declaration of the independence of Timor-Leste in 2002. Carolina's next UN political mission in Baghdad was during the US war in Iraq, developing programs on the employability and economic rights of widows as part of the mission's human rights component, as well as coordinating preparations for the first international donor conference. Since surviving the the terrorist attack to the UN office in Baghdad, in 2003, she has started a regional office in South America for a Swiss NGO, focusing on advocacy issues, helping expand the work of the Brazilian Agency for Cooperation's policy on international assistance, and taught at the university level at the Pontificia Universidade Catolica, and the IBMEC Institute in Brazil. She holds a graduate degree in international relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and has just completed her Mid-Career MPA at the Harvard Kennedy School. Carolina's research focus, during her fellowship, is the security environment of international agencies in the 21st century, and the new sources of insecurity facing organizations active in conflict areas.

2010 / 2011 Fellows
Paul Fishstein Paul Fishstein was a Fellow with the State Building and Human Rights in Afghanistan & Pakistan program from 2009-2011. Mr. Fishstein (MS, Agricultural and Resource Economics; BA, English Literature) served as Director of the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU), a Kabul-based, policy research institution, from 2005 to 2008. Before joining AREU as Deputy Director in 2004, Paul worked in Kabul and at provincial levels on USAID-funded initiatives to strengthen the management of health care delivery, and from 1989-93 managed refugee assistance and “cross-border” reconstruction activities in Quetta and Islamabad, Pakistan. Paul first worked in Afghanistan during 1977-79 as a teacher trainer in Kabul and northern Afghanistan. Paul has also worked as a Researcher at the World Bank in Washington, focusing on agricultural policies and food security in India and Africa, and provided assistance on financial analysis, organizational development, and sustainability planning to health organizations in developing countries, including Bangladesh, Nepal, Romania, and Tanzania. Paul is currently involved in a research project looking at the relationship between aid and stabilization in Afghanistan.

Shoubo Rasheed Jalal Dr. Shoubo Rasheed Jalal was a Gebran G. Tueni Fellow during the 2010-2011 academic year. Dr. Shoubo Rasheed Jalal is an Iraqi medical doctor who has worked for 25 years in the field of child and maternal health and rights. She has worked for more than 8 years with UNICEF in Iraq, as well as at the Ministry of Health in Iraq in the capacity of Deputy Health Education Manager, assuming different clinical and managerial positions at various levels. Dr. Rasheed has also served as a member of the Executive Committee, and as HIV focal point for Iraq's Reproductive Health & Family Planning Association for more than four years.

During her professional career, Dr. Rasheed supported both the Ministry of Health and UNICEF to develop and execute several national communication-social mobilization programs for Iraq in the areas of immunization, infant and young child feeding, HIV prevention, hygiene promotion among young people, girls education, and pandemic influenza. For the last four years, she was the assigned deputy for the United Nation's Gender taskforce in Iraq, through which she led the coordination between the UN, the Government of Iraq, and international NGOs. On behalf of UNICEF, Dr. Rasheed chaired the thematic working group for the Iraq's Common Country Assessment and the outcome working group for the UN Development Assistance Framework for Iraq on the Essential Services for the years 2011-2014.

Dr. Rasheed has been actively engaged in the development of assessment tools and report writing for several national and personal studies in communication. Furthermore, Dr. Rasheed was the driving force behind the design, execution and dissemination of the first ever nationwide survey of Iraqi youth's knowledge, attitudes and practices.

Dr. Rasheed is an accomplished facilitator and trainer. In addition to developing training manuals and quality educational material, she has published several personal studies on behavioral change including: Nutrition in Elderly, Effect of Maternal Malnutrition and Anemia on Child Health, Breastfeeding Practices Among Urban Communities, Female Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Breast Self Examination, and Congenital Malformations in Children.

Dr. Shoubo Rasheed Jalal was a recipient of the
Gebran G. Tueni Human Rights Fellowship Program Award.

David Mansfield David Mansfield was a fellow during the 2010-11 academic year. David has been doing fieldwork in rural Afghanistan since June 1997. The evidence base he has produced has been at the forefront of policy development in drugs and development in Afghanistan and represents an important source of primary data for many policy analysts and academics. By examining the different factors that influence opium poppy cultivation, David's work has also documented the diversity in socioeconomic, political and environmental conditions across rural Afghanistan.

David has worked for a variety of different organizations in Afghanistan including the Afghan Research and Evaluation Unit, the Aga Khan Development Network and the United Kingdom's Afghan Drugs Inter Departmental Unit and Department for International Development. He has also supported the World Bank, Asia Development Bank and the European Commission in integrating the drugs issue into their rural development programmers in Afghanistan, including their support to National Priority Programmes.

Prior to his work in Afghanistan David worked in overseas drugs and development issues, working in each of the major drug producing regions of South and South East Asia, and Latin America. His published work has sought to contextualise drugs as a development issue, and in particular has focused on developing pro-poor approaches to development in drug producing areas. Copies of his reports can be found at

Nigel Pont Nigel Pont was a Fellow with the Sate Building & Human Rights in Afghanistan & Pakistan program from 2009-2011. Mr. Pont has recently completed two and a half years as Mercy Corps' Afghanistan Country Director, focusing primarily on rural agricultural development in Helmand and Kandahar provinces, natural resource management in the north east of the country and microfinance in Kabul and Jalalabad. He has extensive Afghanistan experience having managed a wide range of relief and development programs during the civil war, the Taliban era and post 9/11. Born in Iran and growing up in Pakistan he has in-depth knowledge of the region and speaks good Dari and Urdu. Between 1997 and 2008 Nigel played a leadership role for Mercy Corps in many of the major humanitarian crises of the past decade including Kosovo, Iraq, Pakistan and post Tsunami Aceh.

Gerard Russell Gerard Russell was a Fellow with the Sate Building & Human Rights in Afghanistan & Pakistan program in 2010-2011. Russell was a diplomat with the British Foreign Office for 14 years, heading one of its diplomatic missions and two of its largest political teams in Embassies overseas. He worked in Jerusalem, Baghdad and Saudi Arabia. Between 2001 and 2003 he designed and headed up the UK effort to reach out to opinion in the Arab and broader Islamic world, giving 200 interviews in Arabic to the Middle East satellite media. In 2005 he was adviser to the Iraqi Prime Minister. From 2007 to 2009 he worked in Afghanistan, latterly as a senior political adviser at the United Nations political mission there. He speaks Arabic and Dari.

Mr. Russell's particular focus at the Carr Center will be on the future of humanitarian intervention, and religious beliefs in the Middle East and South Asia. He is keeping a blog: www.gerardrussellcom.

A more detailed biography, and links to recent published articles, is available here.

Zeena Zakharia Zeena Zakharia was a Gebran G. Tueini Fellow during the 2010-11 academic year. Her scholarly interests converge at the intersection of human rights and educational policy within conflict/post-war and development contexts, particularly in the Middle East. She has over 15 years of experience in educational development practice and research among elite and minoritized populations in the Middle East, including ten years in educational leadership, institution-building, and teacher training in post-war Lebanon. She comes to the Carr Center from Columbia University, where she served as Lecturer at Teachers College. Her most recent publications focus on the interplay of language policy, collective identity, and human security in schools, during and after violent political conflict in Lebanon. She is currently investigating how non-state armed actors engage in anti-oppression, peace, and human rights education, as part of a larger interest in how to develop learning institutions whose policies, curriculum, and structure are conceptualized holistically around furthering human rights. At the Carr Center, she will extend a large-scale study of schooling to understand how varying conceptualizations of human rights are being implemented across different religious, socioeconomic and geographic contexts in Lebanon. She holds a doctorate from Columbia University's Teachers College, an Ed.M. from the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and a B.A. from Yale.

Zeena Zakharia was a recipient of the
Gebran G. Tueni Human Rights Fellowship Program Award.

Abdulrazzaq al-Saiedi Abdulrazzaq al-Saiedi was an Associate Fellow in 2010-11. Mr. al-Saiedi is Middle East Policy analyst and human rights consultant. He spent four years covering the war and the political transition in Iraq for the New York Times. He covered the Saddam Hussein trial as a reporter and international observer for the international human rights organizations. As a consultant, al-Saiedi has helped formulate transitional justice policies in the Iraqi legal and political system. He has also helped to draw up policies for the Iraqi government and the civil society on issues such as reparations, accountability and verification standards, and truth-seeking processes. Originally trained as engineer, Al-Saiedi holds an MPA from the Harvard Kennedy School, where he was a Mason Fellow. He was a Nieman Foundation for Journalism Fellow in 2008.

Ali A. Allawi Ali A. Allawi was a Gebran G. Tueni Fellow during the 2009-10 academic year and an associate fellow throughout the following year. Dr Allawi served as the Interim Minister of Trade in the new Government of Iraq from 2003-2004 until he was appointed the first Interim Minister of Defense of Iraq. In April 2005 Mr. Allawi was appointed Minister of Finance in the Transitional Iraqi Government. Born in Baghdad, Iraq, Mr. Allawi graduated from MIT with a BSc in Civil Engineering and continued his postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics. In 1971 he received his MBA from Harvard University. He has just published The Crisis in Islamic Civilization (Yale University Press) and is working on another book that will be a comprehensive political biography of Faisal I of Iraq, set against the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the formation of the modern state system in the Middle East and Iraq.

• More about Dr. Allawi's work as a Fellow

Ali A. Allawi was a 2009 recipient of the
Gebran G. Tueni Human Rights Fellowship Program Award.

• Carnegie Council Web site
• Middle East Lecture Series Information

2009 / 2010 Fellows
Jasteena Dhillon

Jasteena Dhillon was an Associate Fellow during the 2009-10 acdemic year. Jasteena is an international lawyer who has worked in international development and conflict environments since 1994. Over her years working in places like South Africa in the mid 90s, through the Balkans, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Iraq and Sudan, she has been confronted with the reality of how justice is done on the ground and who the local actors in this system really are, many times contrary to what the international community develops it’s policy around. Her work in Afghanistan, as it has been in Iraq and Sudan, is aimed at cultivating local systems of customary justice and building a state system that gives due regard to local values and conceptions of justice. Her nuanced and pragmatic perspective is rare to find in a field dominated by those more comfortable working with formal systems in the image of western institutions. Before joining Harvard, she was at NATO working as an advisor on justice & reconciliation and civil-military interaction in Afghanistan and Sudan as a way to facilitate civil-military interaction.

Jasteena Dhillon discusses her experiences managing legal aid programs for returnees and people who have experienced human rights violations in Afghanistan. Three short videos.

Go to Videos >

Gerald Knaus Gerald Knaus is founding chairman of the European Stability Initiative (ESI) since 1999.  ESI, with 24 staff based in 10 cities from London to Baku, is today the largest think tank focusing on the Balkans, Turkey and the South Caucasus.  Gerald studied in Oxford, Brussels and Bologna. He taught economics at the University of Chernivtsi (Ukraine) and worked for five years in Bulgaria and Bosnia for NGOs and international organizations, including the OHR in Sarajevo and as analyst for ICG. He was director of the Lessons Learned Unit of the EU Pillar of the UN Mission in Kosovo (from 2001 to 2004). Some of Gerald’s articles have triggered wide public debates, including "Travails of the European Raj" on Bosnia (2003) and "Member State Building and the Helsinki Moment" (2004). He co-authored more than 60 ESI reports as well as scripts for award-winning TV documentaries on South East Europe. He is a founding member of the European Council on Foreign Relations and a 2007/2008 Open Society Fellow. In 2004 he moved to Istanbul. He regularly writes for the Rumeli Observer. [[ Dynamic data was lost here ]]

Rima Merhi Rima Merhi is a researcher, human rights activist, and freelance journalist with publications in leading newspapers and other media outlets. She recently conducted research at the Middle East Institute and the Library of Congress in Washington DC. Rima has a BA in public administration and MA in political science (emphasis international affairs) from the American University of Beirut (AUB), and an MBA from the Lebanese American University. In July 2005 she testified before the U.S. Congress on youth aspirations for political, economic, and social reform in Lebanon. Rima then worked for the UN to improve the humanitarian situation of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and participated in the media and relief committees organized by the prime minister's office to manage the crisis at Nahr el Bared Palestinian camp in May 2007. Rima acquired human rights education and training at Oxford and holds numerous certificates related to the field of human rights. Rima is currently enrolled in media and journalism classes.

• More about Rima Merhi's work as a Fellow

Rima Merhi was a recipient of the
Gebran G. Tueni Human Rights Fellowship Program Award.

Rose Styron

Rose Styron was a Carr Center Fellow with the Human Rights and Social Movements Program. Styron is a poet, journalist, and human rights activist. She has published three volumes of poetry: From Summer to Summer (Viking, 1965), Thieves' Afternoon (Viking, 1972), and By Vineyard Light (Rizzoli, 1995), and has collaborated in translations from Russian (Modern Russian Poetry and Poets on Street Corners, both published by Viking Press.) Her poetry appears in a variety of publications. Her articles on human rights and foreign policy have been published in periodicals such as The New York Review of Books, The Nation, and The New Republic, and her interviews, book reviews, and essays in American Poetry Review, The Paris Review, Ms. Magazine, Vogue, Holiday, Ramparts, The Los Angles Times, New York Times, Chicago Sun Times, and other publications. “Voice of America” produced Writer's World, her international series of conversations with publicly-engaged novelists and poets, selections of which were subsequently syndicated in New Perspectives Quarterly. Styron recently wrote an introduction to William Styron's Letters to My Father (LSU Press), and is currently working on a collection of his letters.

In the field of mental health, Styron contributed a chapter to Unholy Ghost: Writers on Depression (Harper Collins, 2002), edited by Nell Casey, and has spoken at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital about her late husband William Styron's depression and its impact on the family.

In 1970, following an Afro-Asian writers conference in Moscow and Tashkent, Styron joined the founding group of Amnesty International USA and has since served on the board of many NGOs, including Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, The Reebok Human Rights Foundation, The Lawyers Committee For Human Rights, Equality Now, and the Project on Justice (based successively at the Harvard Kennedy School and at Tufts University), traveling widely on their behalf in Latin America, the USSR, Central Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Her most recent involvements have been South Africa, Cuba, and Northern Ireland. Styron has also chaired PEN's Freedom-to-Write Committee, AI USA's National Advisory Council, and the Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Awards. Styron currently serves on the boards of the Academy of American Poets, the Association to Benefit Children, and The Brain and Creativity Institute at USC. Styron is an overseer for New York University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the Council of Foreign Relations. In Spring 2009, she was a Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School's Institute of Politics.

This spring, Timothy Patrick McCarthy and Carr Center Fellow Rose Styron will moderate a weekly Conversations Series, entitled “Making History: The Art and Politics of Human Rights.”

Matt Waldman Matt Waldman was formerly Head of Policy and Advocacy for Oxfam International in Afghanistan, where he has worked for the past two and half years, and is the author of a number of reports on the country, including on peace-building, protection of civilians, civil-military affairs, development and aid effectiveness.

From 2004-2006 he was the Liberal Democrats Foreign Affairs and Defence Adviser based in the UK Parliament, with responsibility for formulating party policy on international affairs, including Iraq, Afghanistan, and human rights issues.

Matt has also worked as a foreign affairs adviser in the European Parliament, and was deputy director of overseas operations for a UK children's charity, which included work in post-conflict countries in Eastern Europe and Africa.

Prior to this he trained and practised as a lawyer with the London-based, international law firm, Norton Rose, which involved work in Europe and Russia. He holds a Masters Degree in Human Rights from London School of Economics. His current research focuses on the conflict in Afghanistan, in particular, the implications of reconciliation and negotiations with insurgents.

Jianli Yang Jianli Yang, was an Associate Fellow at with the Carr Center's Human Rights and Social Movements Program. After completing his Doctorate in Political Economy at Harvard, Dr. Yang returned to study the growing labor unrest in northern China. He was arrested and sentenced to five years imprisonment for spying. Following an international outcry for his release, including a UN Resolution and a unanimous vote of both houses of the United States Congress, Dr. Yang was freed in April of 2007. Immediately following his return to the U.S. Dr. Yang formed Initiatives for China, a pro democracy movement committed to a peaceful transition to democracy in China. He firmly believes that continued U.S. leadership in holding China accountable for respecting the human and political rights of its citizens is a critical component for world stability and for the peaceful transition to a democratic society in China.

A recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Yang is widely recognized as a leading architect for democracy in China. He established the Foundation for China in the 21st Century and is the co-author of a constitution for a democratic China. Dr. Yang created the Interethnic/Interfaith Leadership Conferences, last series of which was held at Harvard in November, 2008. He is also the founder of China E-Weekly magazine.
2008 / 2009 Fellows
Bonnie Docherty is a Lecturer on Law and Clinical Instructor at the International Human Rights Clinic of Harvard Law School's Human Rights Program.  She is also Researcher in the Arms Division of Human Rights Watch (HRW). She is an expert on international humanitarian law, particularly involving cluster munitions and civilian protection during war.  For Human Rights Watch, she has conducted field research and written reports on cluster munition use in Lebanon (2006) and Afghanistan (2001-2002) and the civilian effects of armed conflict in Israel (2006), Israel/Gaza (2005), and Iraq (2003).  Through writing and advocacy, she has participated in the campaign for the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which culminated in its adoption in May 2008.  At the Clinic, her areas of focus include international humanitarian law, freedom of expression, and human rights and the environment.  She received her A.B. from Harvard University and her J.D. from Harvard Law School. Before law school, she worked as a journalist for three years.

Dan Kuwali, Esq. is Deputy Director of Legal Services in the Malawi Defence Force with the rank of Major. He served as Division Legal Advisor with the UN Mission in the DRC; interned with Amnesty International in the UN Office in New York and held a research fellowship with the Danish Institute of Human Rights in Copenhagen, exploring the protection of civilians in armed conflicts. Dan has been a Marie Curie Researcher at the Grotius Centre of International Legal Studies in The Hague, investigating the question of accountability of Private Military Corporations and Guest Researcher at the Nordic African Institute, examining the implementation of the right of intervention by the AU. Dan attained Honourable Mention in the 2008 Human Rights Award, Washington College of Law, American University, writing on climate change as a challenge to human rights. He is earning a doctoral degree in Public International Law (Dr. iur) at Lund University in Sweden. Major Kuwali was Malawi’s Plenipotentiary in the Oslo Process to ban cluster munitions. He is a Correspondent of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law.

Ben Skinner E. Benjamin Skinner, raised in Wisconsin and northern Nigeria where his father served as a British colonial administrator, Ben first learned about slavery as a child in Quaker meeting. In 2003, as a writer on assignment in Sudan for Newsweek International, Skinner met his first survivor of slavery. Having flown in along with an Evangelical group, purporting to buy slaves en masse to secure their freedom, he hitched a ride on a U.N. Cessna to the frontlines of the north-south Sudanese civil war. There he met Muong Nyong. Like Skinner, Nyong was 27 at the time, yet unlike Skinner, he had spent the first part of his life in bondage. Since that time, Skinner has traveled the globe to find others like Nyong, a task which would prove to be the most daunting challenge of his professional life. Going undercover when necessary, he has infiltrated trafficking networks and slave quarries, urban child markets and illegal brothels. In the process, he has become the first person in history to observe the sales of human beings on four continents. His book, A Crime So Monstrous tells the stories of the lives of a few of these slaves, as well as of his own often harrowing encounters with those who sell, own, and free them.

• Personal Web site

Felisa Tibbitts is Co-Founder and Director of Human Rights Education Associates (HREA). She has worked as an educator, evaluator and materials developer on the topics of monitoring children's rights, the human rights-based approach to programming and the integration of human rights themes in curricula. Felisa has carried out adult trainings with educators and humanitarian workers in over 20 countries and serves as a consultative expert for the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Organization of American States. She is presently working on a doctoral thesis that examines the roles of INGOs and national actors in promoting human rights education in national secondary school curricula in European countries during the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004).

Radwan Ziadeh was a Senior Fellow at United States Institute of Peace (USIP), is the founder and director of the Damascus Center for Human Rights Studies and is the secretary of the Syrian Organization for Transparency. Prior to his time at USIP, Ziadeh was editor of Tyarat magazine and a researcher with the UNDP project "Syria 2025.” In 2004, Ziadeh was named as best researcher in the Arab world in political science by Jordan's Abdulhameed Shoman Foundation. Ziadeh was one of the major players in "Damascus Spring,” a period of intense debate about politics and social issues and calls for reform in Syria after the death of President Hafez al-Assad in 2000. He has lectured in institutions, universities, and conferences around the world. Ziadeh has published studies, research projects and articles in local and international magazines in Arabic, English, Spanish and French and has also written for a wide range of Arabic and International publications including Al-Hayat (London), Almustaqbal, an-Nahar (Lebanon), Alghad (Jordan), Al-Ahram (Cairo) and the International Herald Tribune. He is a frequent political commentator to several U.S, European, and Middle Eastern media, including Aljazeera, Alarabiya, B.B.C and Alhura. Ziadeh regularly contributes articles in Arabic to various academic journals and writes a bimonthly op-ed for the leading Arab daily Al-Hayat.

USIP Biography Page
2007 / 2008 Fellows
. Greg Behrman was the Henry Kissinger Fellow for Foreign Policy at The Aspen Institute.  Greg has published two books: The Most Noble Adventure:  The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe (2007)and The Invisible People:  How the U.S. Has Slept through the Global AIDS Pandemic, The Greatest Humanitarian Catastrophe of Our Time (2004). Greg has a B.A. in Political Economy from Princeton University and an M.Phil in International Relations from Oxford University, where he received a Distinction on his thesis. At the Carr Center he will be researching the relationship between economic conditions and some of the political and geopolitical problems in the Middle East and examining ways that America can use economic diplomacy and economic instruments more effectively to advance stability and human rights, as well as America's strategic position, in the region.

. Dexter Filkins is a foreign correspondent for The New York Times. From March 2003 until August 2006, he was a correspondent in the paper’s Baghdad bureau. Prior to that, he was chief of the paper’s Istanbul bureau and a correspondent in Afghanistan, where he covered the war there in 2001 and 2002. He is writing a book about Afghanistan and Iraq, to published by Alfred R. Knopf. Filkins’ work in Iraq and Afghanistan has received a number of awards, including a George Polk award for his coverage of the assault on Falluja in November 2004. During the attack on Falluja, Filkins accompanied a company of Marines, a quarter of whom were killed or wounded in eight days. In 2002, he was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize for his work from Afghanistan. Filkins joined The New York Times in 2000. Prior to that, he was the New Delhi bureau chief for The Los Angeles Times. From 1987 until 1995, he was a reporter for the Miami Herald. Filkins has an M.Phil. in International Relations from Oxford University and a B.A. in government from the University of Florida, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He grew up in Cape Canaveral, Florida.

. Arif Jamal is a scholar and prominent journalist from Lahore, Pakistan. Arif has written more than 200 investigative and interpretive articles in English, focusing on such subjects as Islamist politics in Pakistan, jihad in Kashmir, madrassas and Afghanistan. Arif’s first book, which profiles and analyzes the history of the jihad in Kashmir in 1988, is expected to be published this fall. Arif began his professional career in Pakistan in 1986 as a journalist with Radio Pakistan and has since worked with such publications as The Pakistan Times, The Muslim, The News, Newsline and Financial Post. Arif has also worked with various foreign media including The New York Times, Radio France International, and The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. At the Carr Center this fall, Arif will be studying modern Salafism and Salafist jihad in South Asia and its links with Saudi Salafists.

. Ana Julia Jatar has served as a member of the Executive Committee and Director of the Political Discrimination Project at SUMATE, an NGO established in 2003 to defend political and electoral rights in Venezuela. While at SUMATE, she wrote a book titled Apartheid in the XXI Century. In the early 90’s she served in the Venezuelan government and was appointed head of the anti-trust agency. During her term, she was also responsible for drafting the norms and regulations for implementing competition policy in Venezuela for the first time. From 1994 until 2001 she was a Senior Fellow at the Inter-American Dialogue in Washington DC, where she dealt with trade, antitrust and other US/Latin-American policy issues. In 1995 she became the director of the Dialogue’s Cuba Program and wrote a book on Cuba titled The Cuban Way. The book received the Choice Award as Outstanding Academic Book. While in Washington, she was the co-host of “Choque de Opiniones” on CNN en Español. From 2001 to 2003 she was a visiting fellow at the David Rockefeller Center, Harvard University where she investigated the growing economic and political bonds between Fidel Castro’s and Hugo Chavez’s governments. She is member of the Editorial Committee of El Nacional, Venezuela’s leading daily newspaper where she also writes a bi-weekly op-ed piece. Dr. Jatar has a PhD in economics from Warwick University in the UK.

Manuel Duarte de Oliveira Manuel Duarte de Oliveira is co-founder and President of the Institute for Humane Studies and Intelligent Sciences and Member of the European Commission Panel of Science, Economy and Society. Professor Duarte de Oliveira holds a degree in Theology from the Portuguese Catholic University, a Master’s with Magna cum Laude in Biblical Theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University, a Ph.D. in Jewish Thought from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a Doctoral Degree in History from the University of Lisbon, and a Juris Doctor degree from the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law in New York. Duarte de Oliveira was a full professor in Lisbon, where he taught Hebrew Exegesis and Hermeneutics, Introduction to Law, Philosophy of Law and Introduction to Modern Thought. After completing his legal studies in the US he served as counsellor to the Executive Board of the Luso-American Foundation for Development, and collaborated in the creation of the Portuguese branch of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, which he then served as Secretary General. As a lawyer, Duarte de Oliveira worked as a Public Defender and in the two largest Portuguese law firms. As Fellow at the Harvard University Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Duarte de Oliveira focuses on the Dialogical Foundation of the Concept of Human Dignity as a Source of Law, seeking to secure a better philosophical formulation of this concept to be applied in legal/constitutional frameworks, confronting present and future challenges to human values, principles and fundamental rights.

Glenn M. Sulmasy Glenn M. Sulmasy, Esq. Capt. USCG, JA is a judge advocate, a professor of law at the United States Coast Guard Academy, and an adjunct faculty at Roger Williams University School of Law. Capt. Sulmasy was a Professor of International Law at the U.S. Naval War College in Newport, R.I., for the 2003-2004 academic year. He has served in numerous operational billets at sea including tours of duty in the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and Red Sea with the Navy during the first Gulf War and along the coast of the United States. Commander Sulmasy has also been an aide/fellow to former Congressman Rob Simmons (Ct-2). He received his B.S. in government from the United States Coast Guard Academy, Juris Doctor cum laude from the University of Baltimore School of Law and an LL.M. from Boalt Hall School of Law at UC Berkeley. Commander Sulmasy has received numerous military awards including: three Meritorious Service Medals, Joint Service Commendation Medal, USCG Commendation Medal, Navy Achievement Medal, Operation Desert Shield Medal and Kuwait Liberation Medal. He has received commendations for his service from the U.S. Congress, Governor of the State of Connecticut, and the United States Attorney for the District of Connecticut.

More about Glenn Sulmasy's book
The National Security Court System: A Natural Evolution of Justice in an Age of Terror” >

Fatima Tlisova Fatima Tlisova is an independent journalist from the North Caucasus. She has worked for ten years as a correspondent for a number of independent Russian papers as wells and international media, including the Associated Press, “Novaya Gazeta”, RFE/RL, BBC and has also served as chief of the North Caucasian bureau of the Russian news agency Regnum. Fatima is a regular writer for IWPR (London) and for the Jamestown Foundation (Washington DC). In her reports and analyses Tlisova has covered how Russian official policy has undermined human rights and exacerbated problems of the North Caucasus region. Fatima’s work has receiving the Rory Peck award and the German Zeit-Stiftung award for her professional and brave reporting on the conflict in the North Caucasus and her efforts to help fellow journalists.

Jonathan Tracy Jonathan Tracy is a military and legal consult to CIVIC (Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict).  Jonathan served as a Judge Advocate in the U.S. Army from 2002 until 2005. He was assigned to the First Armored Division in Baumholder, Germany and deployed with that unit to Baghdad for fourteen months in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. His primary responsibility in Iraq was serving as a Claims Officer. In that position he adjudicated claims filed by Iraqis who were harmed by U.S. or coalition military operations. Jonathan earned an LL.M. in the International Legal Studies Program at American University Washington College of Law with a specialization in the International Protection of Human Rights.  Jonathan holds a B.A. degree from James Madison University and a Juris Doctorate magna cum laude from Chase College of Law.
2006 / 2007 Fellows
. William Arkin is a Washington Post online columnist ( "Early Warning") and NBC News military analyst.  He is also an adjunct professor at the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, U.S. Air Force, where he is completing a study of airpower in the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war. Arkin started his career as a U.S. Army intelligence analyst and has since worked in a variety of non-governmental organizations on arms control and military affairs, including the Natural Resources Defense Council, where he worked on nuclear issues throughout the 1980's and 1990's; Greenpeace International, where he was the director of military research; and Human Rights Watch, where he was senior military advisor until 2003. He has been a columnist for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and the Los Angeles Times and is author of a dozen books, most recently "Code Names: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs and Operations in the 9/11 World" and "Operation Iraqi Freedom: 22 Historic Days in Words and Pictures." While at the Carr Center, he will be completing a monograph "Why Civilians Die" based upon a comprehensive database of military conflicts in the precision era and will be completing his chapter for Sarah Sewall's upcoming edited volume, "In Search of the Perfect War," analyzing the civilian effects of collateral damage in recent U.S. wars.

. Sally Fegan-Wyles was the United Nations Goodman Fellow.  Sally is the Director of the UN Development Group Office (UNDGO), responsible for guiding and supporting the UN's reform efforts at the country level. She has been a UN staff member for 28 years, mainly working in Africa as UNICEF Representative (Liberia, Uganda, Zimbabwe) or UN Resident Coordinator (Tanzania). As Director of the UNDGO, she is responsible for policy support to the UN Country Team and the UN Resident Coordinator in 134 countries, and for the implementation of the ongoing UN reform initiative, including the "One UN" approach being piloted in eight Countries. Some programs Sally pioneered include designing the first UN response to HIV/Aids in Uganda in 1985, leading the international community response to the Zimbabwe drought of 1991, and providing social policy advice to the new Museveni Government in Uganda, during and after the civil war.  She is an Irish national and a graduate of Trinity College Dublin and London School of Economics in economics and social planning. Her research at the Kennedy School involves "Increasing International Coherence in Post-Crisis Recovery," examining efforts to close the crisis response gaps both within the United Nations and other international actors.

. Caroline Elkins is the Hugo K. Foster Associate Professor of African Studies in the History Department at Harvard University .  Her book, Imperial Reckoning:  The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya, won the Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction in 2006.  During her year at the Carr Center Professor Elkins will be researching and writing her next book on counter-insurgency, human rights violations, and the decline of the British Empire after the Second World War. 

Omer Ismail Omer Ismail was born in the Darfur region of Sudan . He has spent over 20 years working both independently and with international organizations on relief efforts.  Omer fled Sudan in 1989 as a result of his political views.  He  helped found the Sudan Democratic Forum, a think tank of Sudanese intellectuals working for the advancement of democracy in Sudan as well as co-founding the Darfur Peace and Development organization to raise awareness about the crisis in his troubled region. He currently works as Policy Advisor to several agencies working in crisis management and conflict resolution in Africa.

Andrea Rossi Andrea Rossi is advisor on child trafficking and migration for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)  headquarters in NY. He has been Research Coordinator at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence working specifically on child trafficking. Mr. Rossi is an economist with a particular focus on development and applied research. He previously worked for the International Labour Organization in the East Africa Area Office, Tanzania in charge of research and statistics (with a focus on child labour) and has conducted and coordinated research projects in Africa, Europe and Latin America , as well as developing specific research methodologies on children's topics. He teaches "Applied Research Methods with Hidden and Marginal Population" at the Essex School in Social Sciences Data Analysis and Collection at the University of Essex (UK) and courses on "Children and Development" in different Universities. Mr. Rossi's main areas of interest are: children issues such as child labour, trafficking and migration, child agency; applied research methodology; combining qualitative and quantitative methods; applied micro econometrics; social network analysis and participatory monitoring and evaluation.

Beena Sarwar Beena Sarwar is a journalist and documentary filmmaker based in Karachi , Pakistan . She has a double major in Studio Art and English Literature from Brown University , USA (1986) and a Masters degree in Television Documentary from Goldsmiths College , University of London (2001). She has extensive experience with the print and electronic media in Pakistan, with a special interest in human rights, media, gender and peace issues.

WIlliam Schulz William Schulz led Amnesty International USA as its Executive Director from 1994-2006. In that capacity, he appeared frequently in the national media and traveled widely, both domestically and internationally, on behalf of human rights, heading missions to Darfur, Sudan; Liberia; Northern Ireland and elsewhere. He is the author of three books on human rights: In Our own Best Interest: How Defending Human Rights Benefits Us All (Beacon Press, 2001); Tainted Legacy: 9/11 and the Ruin of Human Rights (Nation Books, 2003); and I Used to Be Innocent: Readings in the Study of Torture (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007). Before coming to Amnesty, Dr. Schulz, an ordained Unitarian Universalist minister, served as President of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations (1985-1993). He is a graduate of Oberlin College, the University of Chicago, and Meadville/Lombard Theological School (at the University of Chicago), and holds seven honorary degrees.
2005 / 2006 Fellows
  Mehrangiz Kar is an attorney, writer, and activist working towards the promotion of democracy, rule of law, and human rights within the framework of Islamic law of the Islamic Republic of Iran since the revolution in 1979. Despite her work and efforts being frequently impeded and curtailed by the intelligence services of the Islamic Republic, she has been an active public defender in Iran's civil and criminal courts, and has published regularly in several influential and independent Iranian journals. Banned from making public appearances within her country, including conferences, radio and television, Ms. Kar has used international forums as a platform for voicing her opinions and advocating for the democratic, political, legal, constitutional, and human rights of the Iranian people. In April 2000, following her participation in a symposium in Berlin, she was arrested and imprisoned on charges of acting against the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Three of the five charges against her are pending, for which she may again be arrested upon her return.

  Major William D. Casebeer is an intelligence officer in the United States Air Force.  He holds degrees in political science from the US Air Force Academy (BS), philosophy from the University of Arizona (MA), and cognitive science and philosophy from the University of California at San Diego (PhD), where his dissertation received the campus-wide outstanding thesis award.  Major Casebeer’s research interests include military ethics, interdisciplinary approaches to non-state political violence/terrorism, and the neural mechanisms of moral judgment and narrative processing.  He is author of Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectionism, and Moral Cognition (MIT Press), and co-author of Warlords Rising: Confronting Violent Non-State Actors (Lexington Books).  Bill has published on topics ranging from the morality of torture interrogation to the rhetoric of evil in international relations (in venues such as Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Biology and Philosophy, and International Studies), and has experience as a Middle East affairs analyst.  Formerly an Associate Professor of Philosophy at the Air Force Academy, he will be researching issues related to collateral damage in military operations, and the impact of armed groups on ethical aspects of international relations.  Bill is a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations and an Associate of the Institute for National Security Studies.

  Jeanne Guillemin, with twenty years of experience in the investigation of biological weapons controversies, has published broadly about them in Science, Scientific American, The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, and The New England Journal of Medicine. She did her undergraduate work at Harvard University and received her graduate degree in sociology and anthropology from Brandeis University in 1973. She has been a Congressional Fellow (sponsored by the American Anthropological Association) and a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow at the Hastings Center for the Study of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences in New York . She is an associate of the Harvard-Sussex Program, a major institute for the study of biological and chemical weapons non-proliferation. Her book Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak (University of California Press, 1999, pb 2001) is the definitive account of the 1992 team research of the largest inhalational anthrax epidemic in recorded history, which in 1979 killed sixty-six people in the Soviet city of Sverdlovsk . More recently she is the author of Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism (Columbia University Press, 2005). Her current research is on the suppression of evidence concerning the Japanese biological warfare program during the 1946-1948 Tokyo war crimes trial, in the name of US national security.

  Cris Stephen served with the New Zealand Army from 1988-1997, inclusive of tours of duty as an infantry officer throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific, and with United Nations Protection Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina throughout 1994-95. From 1999 he was the Political Officer for the United Nations Mine Action Service within the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, where he was desk officer responsible for assessment and monitoring of the landmine threat, policy development, and coordination with other UN and non-UN agencies and partners. Since September 2001 he has been the Programme Officer for Afghanistan and has been responsible for ongoing day-to-day support to the efforts of the United Nations, international community, NGOs and Government of Afghanistan in that country.
2004 / 2005 Fellows
. Lieutenant-General Romeo A. Dallaire joined the Canadian army in 1964. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General in July 1989. In 1993, while commander of 5e Groupe-brigade mécanisé du Canada at Valcartier, Quebec he was given command of the UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR). This mission was integrated into the UN Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) in October 1993, and Dallaire was appointed Force Commander. As the leader of a United Nations peacekeeping mission, Dallaire arrived in Rwanda prepared to enforce a recently completed peace treaty. Instead, he found a humanitarian disaster. During Dallaire's time in Rwanda, 800,000 people were killed in just 100 days, despite his best efforts to warn the UN about the impending genocide. Upon his return from serving as Force Commander of the UN mission to Rwanda, Dallaire served as Commander of the 1st Canadian Division and Deputy-Commander of the Canadian Army. On promotion to Lieutenant-General, he was appointed to various senior positions including Assistant Deputy Minister (Human Resources-Military) in the Ministry of National Defence. He retired from the Canadian army in 2000 and is now a special advisor to the Canadian Minister responsible for Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) on matters relating to war affected children around the world and to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade on the non-proliferation of small arms. He is a best-selling author, his recent book, Shake Hands With the Devil, is a stirring account of his experiences in Rwanda.

. Tiawan Saye Gongloe has been at the forefront of the struggle for justice in Liberia for the past two decades. A graduate of the University of Liberia 's Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law, Gongloe was a lawyer and managing director of a law firm in Monrovia from 1994 until 2002. During this time, he defended the rights of the poor, indigent clients, and government critics illegally detained or charged with politically-motivated crimes.  His clients included independent journalists, pro-democracy advocates and human rights defenders. Prior to 1994, Gongloe held the position of executive assistant to the President of the Interim Government of Liberia. In this capacity he provided legal advice and assistance to the Interim President and participated in many of the peace conferences organized by ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) as a member of the Interim Government's delegation. Following the end of the civil war in 1997, Gongloe emerged as one of Liberia 's preeminent human rights lawyers. An unwavering critic of the abuses of the Liberian government under Charles Taylor, on April 24, 2002, Gongloe was arrested without charge by the police and severely beaten. By the following morning, he had been brutalized so severely that he was unable to stand. Following pressure from local and international groups, the government transferred him to a hospital. Fearing that he would be rearrested and tortured upon his release, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International helped Gongloe and his family to leave Liberia.  During his time at the Carr Center, Gongloe plans to examine the failings of the Liberian judiciary and the justice system's role in contributing to the breakdown of the state. Among many other awards, Gongloe was honored as a 2003 Human Rights Watch Defender.

. Fabienne Hara was the co-director for the Africa program of the International Crisis Group until May 2003. After serving at the ICG for five years, Fabienne Hara has become an independent consultant specializing in: conflict analysis; conflict prevention and mitigation; peace agreements and support to transitional processes; evaluations; Central and West Africa. She has been working on Africa, conflict prevention and refugees issues in various think tanks and organizations like the Center for Preventive Action at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, Doctors of the World in Burundi, academic institutions in France and Germany. She has been an observer to the Arusha and Lusaka peace processes in Burundi and DRC. She has written and edited more than 40 reports and briefing papers on Central, West and North Africa for ICG and published a number of articles including "Burundi: a Case of Parallel Diplomacy" in Herding cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World, USIP press, 1999; "Learning from Burundi's Failed Transition" in Cases and Strategies for Preventive Action, Twentieth Century Fund, New York, 1998; "Cinquante millions de réfugiés vivent une précarité durable" in Le Nouvel Etat du Monde, La Découverte, Paris, 1999/ 2001.

. Geoffrey Nyarota began his journalism career at The Herald in Zimbabwe in 1978. Nyarota also served as editor of The Chronicle, a daily in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe's second largest city. During his tenure, The Chronicle published a series of articles exposing large-scale corruption involving government ministers and officials. As a result, the government, which owned the paper, removed Nyarota as editor. He then moved to The Financial Gazette, a weekly business and financial newspaper, and later joined the Nordic-Sadc Journalism Centre in Maputo, Mozambique. On his return to Zimbabwe in 1999, Nyarota founded The Daily News, the country's only independent daily newspaper. The newspaper's aggressive efforts to uncover corruption and human rights abuses made it the most widely read paper in the country. On Dec. 30, 2002, Nyarota was fired as editor on what management said were administrative grounds. But his dismissal came amid an escalating campaign by President Robert Mugabe's government to quiet criticism from independent news outlets. Nyarota fled to South Africa after police visited his home at midnight. Previously he had been arrested on six occasions while his newspaper was the target of a bomb attack twice. He has been at Harvard University since the beginning of 2003 under the auspices of the Nieman Fellowship Program for Journalists. As a Carr Center Fellow, he proposes to undertake research on ethnicity as a factor in the liberation struggle and post-independence national politics of Zimbabwe. He was awarded a Knight International Press Fellowship Award in 2001 and an International Press Freedom award from the Committee to Protect Journalists. In May 2002, Nyarota was awarded the 2002 UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize and the World Association of Newspaper Golden Pen Award the same year. In all, he has received nine international media awards for his work as a journalist in Zimbabwe.

. Emran Qureshi is an independent scholar, writer, and freelance journalist. He is the co-editor of The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy recently released from Columbia University Press. His articles and reviews have appeared in the Washington Post, Boston Globe, Los Angeles Times, Guardian Weekly, and Globe & Mail. A past consultant to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, he has been discussed and profiled in The Chronicle of Higher Education in a cover article on leading young scholars entitled ‘‘Islamic Studies Young Turks.’’ While at Carr he will be working on a writing and book-editing project entitled The Crisis of State and Society in the Muslim World. Examining modern intellectual traditions dealing with democratization and notions of rights and liberties within Islamic philosophical and theological traditions, this work will also subject to scrutiny the entrenched ideological opposition to emancipatory political projects.

. Bertrand Ramcharan is the first recipient of the Goodman United Nations Fellowship at the Kennedy School of Government and will be a part of the Carr Center for the 2004 fall semester. From May 2003 until July 2004 Ramcharan served as United Nations Acting High Commissioner for Human Rights. Prior to that appointment, which he left at the level of Under-Secretary-General, he was Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights and Assistant Secretary-General. He is an international expert and leader on international law and practice of human rights. A Barrister of Lincoln's Inn, with a Doctorate in international law from the London School of Economics and Political Science, he has been a Commissioner of the International Commission of Jurists and also a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. He has taught as Adjunct Professor of International Human Rights Law at Columbia University and has written or edited some twenty books and numerous articles. He is the holder of the prestigious Diploma in International Law of the Hague Academy of International Law, where he has also been Director of Studies. During his diverse career of three decades at the United Nations he has served in the Centre for Human Rights as Special Assistant to the Director, as the Secretary-General's Chief Speech-Writer (in which capacity he wrote the first Secretariat draft of Agenda for Peace), as Director of the Office of the SRSG in UNPROFOR, the largest-ever United Nations peacekeeping operation, as Director of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia and Political Adviser to the peace negotiators in the Yugoslav conflict for four years, and as a Director in the UN Political Department, dealing with African conflicts. He has been on a number of fact-finding and diplomatic missions for the United Nations, more recently to look at human rights issues in the conflict in Cote d'Ivoire, to Central Asia and Rwanda. Previously he has visited prisoner of war camps in Iran and Iraq, participated in a preventive diplomacy mission to Bulgaria and Turkey in the 1990s, and coordinated a high level panel of eminent persons to Algeria in 1998, at the height of the violence in that country.

. Rosalind Shaw is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Tufts University (1989-present), and has held appointments at the University of Edinburgh (1987-1989), University of Aberdeen (1984-1985), and University of Nigeria (1982-1984). She holds a Ph.D. in Social Anthropology from the University of London (1982), has carried out extensive ethnographic field research in Sierra Leone since 1977, and has published widely on religion, social memories of violence, and post-war recovery. She is the author of Memories of the Slave Trade: Ritual and the Historical Imagination in Sierra Leone (University of Chicago Press, 2002), and is co-editor both of Syncretism/Anti-Syncretism: The Politics of Religious Synthesis (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), and Dreaming, Religion and Society in Africa (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992). Memories of the Slave Trade was a finalist for the 2003 Herskovitz Prize for the best scholarly work on Africa. She has received numerous awards and fellowships, most recently a Jennings Randolph Senior Fellowship at the United States Institute of Peace (2003-04) and a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research and Writing Grant (2004-05). She is currently writing up a four-year project on post-war memory, healing, and reconciliation in Sierra Leone that forms the basis for a broad reappraisal of truth commissions and the promotion of more locally effective processes of healing and social recovery following mass violence.

. Rory Stewart joins the Carr Center after working for the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) in Iraq. As Deputy Governorate Coordinator (Amara/Maysan) and Senior Adviser and Deputy Governorate Coordinator (Nasiriyah/Dhi Qar), Stewart established the governance structures of Maysan province; resolved tribal disputes to restore security and consolidate the authority of the Iraqi government and the police;  set up NGOs and civil society organizations;  ran municipal elections;  inaugurated a new Provincial Council in Dhi Qar and saw the province through to the transfer of sovereignty on 28 June 2004 He was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE) by the British Government for services in Iraq.  He Between 2000 and 2002, he walked from Turkey to Bangladesh, covering 6,000 miles on foot, alone, on his journey across Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal. This year he has published The Places in Between (Picador/Macmillan June 2004), a book about contemporary Afghanistan, based on his experiences in 2001-2002 and a brief period spent working for Ashraf Ghani, (Special Adviser to SRSG for Afghanistan, Lakdar Brahimi), who was drafting the framework for the new Afghan administration.  Before joining the CPA, Stewart held various positions in the UK Foreign Office including: UK Representative, Montenegro; Second Secretary (Political/Economic), British Embassy, Jakarta; and Desk Officer (Japan and Korea), London.  He also served in the British Army and received his B.A., M.A., Modern History and Politics, Philosophy and Economics from Balliol College, Oxford University. He has written for the New York Times Magazine, Granta and the London Review of Books.
2003 / 2004 Fellows
. Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf is a Sudanese anthropologist and a visiting assistant professor of anthropology at Tufts University. Abusharaf comes to the Center to develop policy recommendations for improving the experience of war-displaced women. Her primary fields of interest are security, human rights protection and the cultural strategies adopted by displaced women to cope with the trauma of violence and dislocation. Abusharaf’s work has received support from the Guggenheim and Rockefeller Foundations, as well as the Andrew Mellon & MIT Center for International Studies. An accomplished scholar, she is the author of numerous publications, including Wanderings: Sudanese Migrants and Exiles in North America (Cornell University Press 2002), and the editor of Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives (forthcoming from the University of Pennsylvania Press). Previously, she held fellowships at the University of Illinois, Chicago, York University and Brown University, and conducted media interviews with organizations such as NPR, the Hartford Courant, and Women Wellbeing, a film documentary featured on Ontario Public Television.

. Sam Amadi is the Director of the Centre for Public Policy and Research in Lagos, Nigeria and is also Senior Legal Officer at The Human Rights Law Service (HURILAWS) in Nigeria. Sam holds a LLB (Hons) from University of Calabar (1992), BL from Nigerian Law School (1993), LLM from Harvard Law School (2001) and MPA from the John F. Kennedy School of Government (2003). He is a member of the Nigerian Bar Association. He was a Senior Counsel at Gani Fawehinmi Chambers from 1993-1995, and an Associate with Olisa Agbakoba and Associates from 1995-Present. He was also part of the Defense Counsel to Ken Saro-Wiwa, an author and environmentalist who was killed by the Nigerian military. He is currently a doctoral student of law and was a Mason Fellow in Public Policy and Administration at Harvard University. He very recently founded 6th Sense Consulting, a multi-disciplinary consultant on public law reform, public policy and development assistance.

. Gary Bass is assistant professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton University. He worked as a Washington reporter and West Coast correspondent for The Economist, for which he wrote extensively on the former Yugoslavia war crime tribunal. Bass has also written for The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, The Boston Globe, The New Republic, Daedalus, Foreign Affairs, and other publications. His research interests include international security, ethics in international relations, American foreign policy, and human rights. He is author of Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crime Tribunals as well as articles on international justice. While at the Carr Center, bass will undertake a book-length study of humanitarian intervention, focusing on the 19th century and engaging the rationalizations and inconsistencies within the history of Western interventionism.

. Volker Heins is a German political scientist with expertise in democratic theory, international relations and globalization studies. He is a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, Germany. Since receiving a summa cum laude doctorate degree in political science from Frankfurt University, Volker Heins has held academic positions as various universities including the Scholl of International Studies of Jawaharal Nehru University in New Delhi, India. At the Carr Center, Dr. Heins will complete research for a study comparing humanitarian impulses and actions in the European Union and the United States by examining their reactions to conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The research will focus on the increasingly complex relationship between nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies (including military) and examine possible differences within the normative discourses of human rights practitioners in Europe and the United States. In addition, Heins will also complete a small introductory book about new social science perspectives on the military in liberal democracies.

. Taslima Nasrin is a Bangladeshi writer, medical doctor, and international spokesperson for human rights. She sprang into the international consciousness when her writing became critical of Islamic religious scripture. A fatwa has been issued, setting a price on her head. The government also filed a criminal case on the charges of hurting the religious feeling of people. Her novel Shame, which depicts Muslim persecution of Bangladesh's Hindu minority, is banned in Bangladesh in addition to subsequent books. She had to flee Bangladesh and currently lives in exile in Europe. Nasrin is the author of twenty-four books of poetry, essays, novels, and short stories in her native language of Bengali and many of her works have been translated into over twenty different languages. Nasrin has won various awards for both her writing and her human rights work including the prestigious Ananda Award (India) in 2000 for her memoir Meyebela (My Bengali Girlhood) which also was on the LA Times Best Non-Fiction Books for 2002. Her list of Awards also include; Human Rights Award from the Government of France, 1994; Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought from the European Parliament, 1994; and Honorary Doctorate in Human Rights from Ghent University Belgium, 1995. While at the Carr Center, Nasrin will examine the current prospects for secularization in Islamic countries and the linkages between secularization and women's emancipation. Please click here to learn more about her developing work the Carr Center.

. John Packerhas spent almost a decade at the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, first as the Senior Legal Advisor to the High Commissioner on National Minorities and currently as the first director of this unique institution. In his time at the Carr Center, Packer will start a research project on the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and the relationship between protection of human rights and conflict prevention. Packer retains years of experience in investigating and reporting on serious violations of human rights in Iraq, Burma and Afghanistan, has served as a guest lecturer in various universities throughout Europe and the United States. He is a member of the editorial board for both the International Journal on Minority and Group Rights and The Human Rights Law Journal. A distinguished scholar, Packer is the author of various publications, and, along with Steven R. Ratner and Zdenka Machnyikova, is an editor of the forthcoming volume, Contemporary Issues in the Protection of Minorities in Europe.

. Dan Squires is a practicing barrister at Matrix Chambers, London, where he specializes in human rights, employment, judicial review and public law. He returns to Harvard, where he received an LLM in 1997, in order to pursue research on administrative detention in international law as it applies to those suspected of terrorist activities and to complete a co-authored book on state liability in tort. Squires' work builds upon his experiences challenging the legality if anti-terrorist statutes in the United Kingdom. He was involved in litigating the first case to challenge the legality of the Terrorism Act 2000. In cooperation with Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, Squires has also been engaged in projects on enforced disappearances and administrative detention. He has worked for the Council of Europe, as a human rights' expert, on a project focusing on regulation of special investigatory means in Eastern Europe and ahs taught Constitutional and Administrative Law at King's College London and the London School of Economics.

. Hassan Rahmouni is visiting the Carr Center from the School of Law and Economics at Hassan II University in Morocco, where he is a Professor of Public Law and Constitutional Law. He comes to us as part of the Fulbright Visiting Specialist Program: "Direct Access to the Muslim World", sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State.

* Fulbright Visiting Specialist
2002 / 2003 Fellows
. Robert Choo grew up in Korea and the United States. He returns to Harvard, where he received an A.B. in 1990 and an M.P.P. in 1994, concentrating in international development. At the Carr Center, he plans to undertake research on integrating the right to development into the traditional human rights framework. Choo also plans to address the question of how to incorporate international human rights conventions into U.S. domestic law on the death penalty. After graduating from Yale in 1999, Choo worked as a law clerk to the Honorable Betty Fletcher of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and the Honorable Judith Rogers of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals. Choo’s human rights experience includes work at Save the Children in Vietnam and Myanmar as well as Adalah – the Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel. Choo is the author of several articles in the “Rutgers Law Review” and the “Harvard Business Review.”

. Vjosa Dobruna was one of only three women appointed to the Joint Interim Administrative Structure of Kosovo (part of the UN Mission to Kosovo). She served the organization as national head of the Department for Democratic Governance and Civil Society, mandated to monitor and recommend laws on human and minority rights, equal opportunities, good governance, and media. A Kosovar pediatric neurologist and human rights activist, she is a senior advisor to Hope Fellowships, a training program for a new generation of Kosovar leaders, and is Vice President of the Board of Governors of RTK, the only public radio and television station in Kosovo. Dr. Dobruna is also the founder and former director of the Center for the Protection of Women and Children, the first such organization in Kosovo. Having collected evidence from victims at sites of massacres and other atrocities, she was targeted by Serb special police. Subsequently caught up in the flood of refugees during the 1999 “ethnic cleansing,” Dr. Dobruna created a similar center in Tetova, Macedonia that provided emergency shelter and care to traumatized women. She has also worked at the Mother Teresa Humanitarian Association, providing health care and advocating for women and children’s health rights, and has taught courses on health education for women and child nutrition and development. She is also the founder of a safe house for battered women in Gjakove, Kosovo.

. Max Glaser hails from the Netherlands and joins the Carr Center after spending a decade as a senior policymaker at the humanitarian relief organization Doctors Without Borders-Holland. At the Center, Glaser plans to concentrate on the challenges posed to humanitarian agencies in the context of protracted conflicts characterized by severe human rights violations. Glaser’s research at the Center builds on his experience with aid operations to Tajikistan, Azerbeijan, Bangladesh, India, Columbia, Uganda and Angola, where he served as head of the Doctors Without Borders-Holland Mission. Recently, Glaser served as head of the Context and Evaluation Department for Doctors Without Borders-Holland, where his responsibilities included developing a methodology for monitoring potential emergencies and overseeing a long term project to strengthen security for the organization’s missions and international relief workers. Glaser holds a masters degree in international relations and international public law from the University of Amsterdam.

. Binaifer Nowrojeewill hold the first joint fellowship at both the Carr Center and the Boston Consortium for Gender, Peace, Security and Human Rights – a group of five leading academic centers and programs dedicated to research and study on issues regarding gender, conflict resolution and prevention. A distinguished human rights advocate, Nowrojee joins the Center to examine how international tribunals can better achieve justice for Rwandan rape survivors. After graduating from Columbia Law School, Nowrojee worked for numerous human rights organizations, including the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Amnesty International, the Swedish NGO Foundation for Human Rights, and the Women’s Rights Project before joining the Africa division of Human Rights Watch, where she is now counsel. Nowrojee is the author of scores of articles and books on human rights and women, including “Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath” (Human Rights Watch, 1996). Originally from Kenya, Nowrojee is no stranger to Harvard, where she earned an LLM.

. Ivan Arreguin-Toft joins the Center to focus on the political and military utility – or lack thereof – of systematic violations of the laws of war, or barbarism. Although military elites and human rights advocates have maintained passionately opposed views over the years, no one to date has set out to measure the consequences of barbarism on military operations and on post-conflict politics. Arreguín-Toft published a journal-length treatment of this research in the Summer 2001 issue of “International Security,” and a book manuscript is currently under review at Cornell University Press. He is currently an inaugural post-doctoral fellow in the Kennedy School’s Women and Public Policy Program. From 1984 to 1987, Arreguín-Toft served as an intelligence analyst in the U.S. Army in Germany. He received his B.A. in political science and Russian languages and literatures from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1990, and a Ph.D. in political science at the University of Chicago in 1998, where his research focused on asymmetric conflict and how weak actors defeat strong actors in wars.
2001 / 2002 Fellows
  Kelly Askin is a legal consultant to the UN and other world agencies in the areas of international humanitarian and criminal law. She was previously Acting Executive Director of the War Crimes Research Office at the Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Washington College of Law, American University. She has also served as legal advisor, Chambers, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and Visiting Scholar, Center for Civil and Human Rights, Notre Dame Law School. Dr. Askin teaches primarily in the areas of international humanitarian law and international gender issues; she is the author of "War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals" (1997) and chief editor of the 3-volume treatise "Women and International Human Rights Law" (1999-2001). Current projects include work on justice and accountability projects in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Somalia, redress for the former "comfort women," and writing projects concerning a casebook in international humanitarian law (co-authored) and the current status of prosecuting international gender-related crimes.

. Alyssa Bernstein returns to the Carr Center, where she served as a fellow from 2000-2001. She received her Ph.D. from Harvard's philosophy department in 2000 and is currently an assistant professor of philosophy on leave from Ohio University. Previously she was a Graduate Fellow in the Kennedy School's Program in Ethics, a Mellon Fellow, and a Fulbright Scholar. This year she will work on the following topics: (1) human rights and gender issues relating to the world AIDS epidemic; (2) problems of defining, justifying, and implementing economic, social, and cultural rights, especially the declared human rights to development and to health; (3) human rights as entailing governmental obligations, both international and domestic, and as setting limits to state sovereignty; (4) the nature of a just system of international law and a just global economy, and the role of human rights in both; (5) philosophical arguments in support of universal human rights in a multicultural world.

  Antonia Chayes Adjunct Lecturer in Public Policy, is a Vice Chair and Senior Advisor of Conflict Management Group. She runs the KSG Executive Program "Initiatives in Conflict Management," participates in KSG's South Africa and Singapore programs, and is Director of the Project on International Compliance and Conflict Management at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. Chayes is a Board member of United Technologies Corporation, and serves on its Executive Committee. During the Carter Administration she was Assistant and later Under Secretary of the U.S. Air Force, where she was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. She has served on several Presidential and Congressional Commissions, including the Vice President's White House Aviation Safety and Security Commission, and the Commission on Roles and Missions of the United States Armed Forces. Chayes is the author of a number of books and articles, most recently, with the late Abram Chayes, Planning for Intervention: International Cooperation in Conflict Management.

. Diane Curran recently received her J.D. from Yale Law School, where she was active in the refugee and immigrants’ rights field, providing legal representation to asylum seekers and detained immigrants and participating in policy initiatives with the Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic. At the Carr Center, Ms. Curran will work in conjunction with the Washington Regional Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to carry out a comprehensive study to assess the expedited removal and detention of asylum seekers by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. She will monitor procedures and interview asylum-seekers and officials at airports and detention centers in three to four major ports-of-entry, and prepare a final report to submit to interested government officials.

  Thomas Cushman is Professor of Sociology at Wellesley College. His areas of study include human rights, comparative sociology, genocide, and social and cultural movements. He is the former editor of Human Rights Review, and the founder and editor of a new periodical, The Journal of Human Rights which will be published in early 2002. He is the author of numerous books and articles on topics ranging from cultural dissidence in Russia to the war in Bosnia and Hercegovina. He is currently studying the world-wide anti-globalization movement and writing an interpretive sociological essay on the human rights movement as a global civil religion. He was recently awarded a Mellon Foundation New Directions Fellowship to explore the relationship between the theory and practice of human rights.

. Eitan Felner is the outgoing Director of B'Tselem: the Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. He has researched and written several reports on human rights in the Occupied Territories. Mr. Felner is a former Chairperson of Amnesty International - Israel Section. He has published several articles on human rights in The International Herald Tribune, Le Monde, Le Monde Diplomatique, and other publications. Over the years he has participated, given lectures and delivered papers in numerous conferences in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, North America and Asia. He also testified on the human rights situation in the Occupied Territories before the Israeli Knesset, the German Bundestag, the Italian Senate and the European and Danish Parliaments and the United Nations. At the Carr Center, Mr. Felner will address the basic paradox that underlies the advocacy work of human rights NGOs: the paradox of applying an absolutist morality that considers rights as categorical imperatives to the realm of politics, which by its very nature entails constraints, compromises and tradeoffs.

  Mario Gomez (LL.B, LL.M, Ph.D) teaches public law, human rights and feminist legal studies in the University of Colombo and was the Founding Director of the University's Legal Aid Centre. He is a member of the Law Commission of Sri Lanka. His publications have been in the areas of public law, women's rights and human rights. He has designed and taught in human rights programs for judges, human rights activists, and members of human rights commissions. Recently, he was involved in developing a training program on economic and social rights for activists in Cambodia and Malaysia.

. Michael Kraus is the Frederick C. Dirks Professor of Political Science at Middlebury College. Born in Prague, Kraus obtained his PhD in Politics at Princeton. A recipient of grants from the Ford Foundation, American Council of Learned Societies, among others, he has previously held appointments as a Research Fellow at the Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government, Columbia's School of International Affairs and as a visiting professor at Charles University in Prague. He has written and co-edited three books and a score of articles on Soviet, Russian and East European politics and history. For the past five years, he has chaired the Department of Political Science at Middlebury. Kraus is a member of the Dante Fascell Fellowship Board of the US Department of State. His research project at the Carr Center focuses on transitional justice in post-communist Europe and its impact on democratization/

  Sally Engle Merry is Professor of Anthropology at Wellesley College, where she also co-directs the Peace and Justice Studies Program. Her work in the anthropology of law focuses on the intersections between law and culture, law and colonialism, and law and the international human rights system. Her current work examines the regulation of violence against women by the human rights system in the light of inequalities of race, class, gender, and colonialism. She is the author of Colonizing Hawai'i: The Cultural Power of Law (Princeton Univ. Press, 2000), Getting Justice and Getting Even (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1990), Urban Danger: Life in a Neighborhood of Strangers (Temple Univ. Press, 1981) and editor, with Neal Milner, of The Possibility of Popular Justice: A Case Study of American Community Mediation (Univ. of Michigan Press, 1993). She is past-president of the Law and Society Association and the Association of Political and Legal Anthropology.

. Anne-Marie Slaughter received her B.A. from Princeton University, an M. Phil., and D. Phil. from Oxford University in International Relations and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Prior to coming to Harvard, she was Professor of Law and International Relations at the University of Chicago Law School. She teaches International Law and International Relations, International Litigation, Civil Procedure, Perspectives on American Law and Transnational Regulatory Cooperation. Recent publications include: "International Law and International Relations Theory: A New Generation of Interdisciplinary Scholarship," with Andrew Tulumello and Stepan Wood, 92 American Journal of International Law 367 (1998), "The Real New World Order," in the 75th Anniversary Issue of Foreign Affairs; "Toward a Theory of Effective Supranational Adjudication," with Laurence Helfer, 107 Yale Law Journal 273 (1997); "International Law in a World of Liberal States," 6 European Journal of International Law 503 (1995). Professor Slaughter is currently working on a book about the formation of transnational networks of government institutions and the implications of these networks for global governance.

  Adam Taylor recently received his masters in Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government. As a graduate student, he worked with the Center for International Development and the Government of Nigeria to design a political strategy to mobilize resources for a comprehensive HIV/AIDS program in Nigeria. His prior work experience includes conflict resolution with the Carter Center as an Urban Fellow with the New York City Commission to the United Nations. He serves as the Co-founder and Executive Director of Global Justice and the Student Global AIDS Campaign. As a new non-profit organization Global Justice seeks to mobilize students and young people in the U.S., in partnership with young people worldwide, to promote global justice and responsibility through education, leadership development, advocacy, and better public policy. He currently serves on the Board of the Jubilee USA Network and the Global AIDS Alliance (GAA).

. Cheryl Welch received her MA and PHD in political theory from Columbia University. She is currently on leave from Simmons College, where she chairs the Department of Political Science and International Relations. Professor Welch taught at Harvard for nine years, serving two stints as head tutor of Social Studies. She has also taught at Columbia, Rutgers, and Tufts. Her work has been supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Mellon Foundation, and the Bunting Institute, and she has been a fellow in law and political theory at Harvard Law School. Welch is the author of Liberty and Utility: The French Idéologues and the Transformation of Liberalism (1984), Critical Issues in Social Theory (with M. Milgate, 1989) and De Tocqueville (Oxford, 2001), as well as numerous articles on French and British political thought, liberalism, and democracy. Her current work focuses on cosmopolitanism and the challenge to traditional ideas of citizenship.
2000 / 2001 Fellows
. Alyssa Bernstein has just received her Ph.D. from Harvard’s Philosophy Department. Her dissertation, entitled Human Rights Reconceived, critically analyzes the conception of human rights and international justice developed during the 1990s by John Rawls, author of the widely influential book, A Theory of Justice (1971). In her work she addresses the following questions: (1) How can respect for cultural and religious differences be reconciled with the conviction that everyone has equal basic human rights? (2) Must Rawlsian (Kantian or cosmopolitan) liberals hold that the category of human rights includes all of the basic rights of citizens of liberal democracies? (3) What position must such liberals take regarding the duties of wealthy societies to provide economic assistance to the poorest? She has been a Fulbright Scholar studying biblical religions in Israel, a Mellon Fellow in the Humanities, and a Graduate Fellow in the Kennedy School’s Program in Ethics and the Professions. At the Carr Center Dr. Bernstein will research and write on humanitarian intervention, international distributive justice, and cosmopolitan liberalism in light of political and economic globalization.

. Gernot Brodnig has been a Research Fellow at the Harvard Information Infrastructure Project for the past year, where he conducted research on “Virtual Diplomacy,” examining the impacts of modern information and communication technologies on the conduct of international affairs. Prior to that, he was the chief facilitator of the “Harvard Oil Dialogues,” a series of consultations between oil companies and environmental NGOs. Before coming to Harvard, he worked as an international civil servant with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and UNESCO, where his responsibilities included policy-oriented research and project design on natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. He is trained in law (Ph.D., University of Vienna), international affairs (M.A., SAIS/Johns Hopkins University) and geography (M.Phil., Cambridge). During the next year, Dr. Brodnig will work on two projects. He will develop a guide on the means by which rights and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations can use technologies such as satellite imaging to improve their ability to prevent and report on human rights violations. He will also research the World Bank’s “safeguarding” policies with regard to protecting human rights in the context of involuntary resettlement of indigenous peoples and the effectiveness of the Bank’s quasi-judicial “inspection panel.”

. Sonia Cardenas comes to the Carr Center from the University of Notre Dame, where she has been a Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Government and International Studies. She received her Ph.D. in Government from the University of Virginia in 1999, with a dissertation called Beyond Compliance: Comparative Responses to International Human Rights Pressure. She has taught human rights, international law and international relations at Adelphi University and the University of Virginia. Dr. Cardenas will be receiving a research grant from the Pacific Basin Research Project at the Kennedy School’s Center for Business and Government, but will be in residence at the Carr Center. At the Carr Center, Dr. Cardenas will be conducting new research on the dynamics of international assistance to national human rights institutions. Focusing on the cases of India, Indonesia, and the Philippines, she will examine the paradox that governments increasingly are creating national institutions to promote human rights norms, yet routinely violate those same norms. In addition, she will be finishing revisions on her book on comparative responses to international human rights pressure.

. Jacob Cogan has been clerking for the Honorable Sandra L. Lynch in the U.S. Court of Appeals since receiving his J.D. from Yale Law School in 1999. He is pursuing a Ph.D. in history from Princeton University, where he received his M.A. in history in 1993. At Yale, he was the Assistant Director of the Global Constitutionalism Project, for which he organized an annual seminar on comparative constitutional law for Supreme Court and Constitutional Court justices from around the world and co-edited a book of cases and readings used by the visiting justices. Cogan worked with the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations at the Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, in Rome in 1998. During his tenure at the Carr Center, as part of the nascent Project on Transitional Justice, Dr. Cogan will work on a book that will delineate what fair trials should look like in international criminal courts, from legal, political, philosophical, and policy perspectives, and assess the likelihood that such trials can take place in a future International Criminal Court.

. Terezinha da Silva is a member of the Social Sciences Faculty at the Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique, where she is also an Associate Researcher at the Centre of African Studies. She began her professional career as a social worker. Following her country's independence in 1975, Ms. Da Silva worked in Mozambique's northern provinces for twelve years in the health and social development sectors, working with women and vulnerable groups such as children in distress, disabled people, older persons and former prisoners. She completed a Master's degree in Social Policy and Planning in Developing Countries at the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1993. She sits on boards of a number of national NGO's working on gender and community issues and has led gender training courses for a number of groups including parliamentarians, government officials, journalists, NGO officers and villagers. Since1996, Ms. Da Silva has been a member of the World Health Organization's expert Advisory Panel on Aging and Health and has been researching and undertaking training activities in this field. While she is at the Carr Center, Ms. Da Silva will work on issues related to improving respect for rights in her home country of Mozambique.

. Rosa Ehrenreich served most recently as Senior Advisor to Harold Hongju Koh, the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. In that position, she led an interagency assessment of Kosovo's Judicial system, helped develop a U.S.-sponsored Security Council resolution to establish an international criminal court to address atrocities in Sierra Leone, and worked on a range of projects designed to increase U.S. domestic compliance with international human rights norms. Before joining the State Department, Ms. Ehrenreich served as Acting Director of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, where she taught seminars in international human rights law and served as faculty supervisor of the Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Law Clinic. Ms. Ehrenreich has also worked extensively as a consultant for Human Rights Watch, producing reports on human rights issues in Uganda, Kenya, Jamaica, and the U.S. She has also worked for the Open Society Institute's U.S. Programs Office, and this year she will serve as a consultant on global rule of law issues for the Soros Foundations. At the Carr Center, Ms. Ehrenreich will work on several research projects including a model for an NGO that would develop comprehensive emergency policy responses for societies experiencing complex human rights and humanitarian crises.

  Lukas Haynes comes to the Carr Center from the Policy Planning Staff of the State Department, where he served as speechwriter for Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright. He was previously Assistant Professor of Diplomacy and World Affairs at Occidental College and OXFAM UK's regional representative and strategy adviser in the Balkans and West Africa. He has studied humanitarian response and military intervention for the International Crisis Group, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the International Peace Academy. At the Carr Center, he will contribute to several projects while completing his doctoral dissertation for Oxford University. His research examines the formulation of U.S. policy to prevent low-intensity conflicts, humanitarian catastrophes, and campaigns of systematic human rights abuse. His most recent publication is "The Emergency Response of NATO and Humanitarian Agencies" in Kosovo: Lessons Learned for International Cooperative Security (Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research: Geneva, 2000).

. Luc Lampriere is a journalist and a writer based in New York. He is the former U.S. and United Nations correspondent and New York bureau chief of the French newspaper Liberation. Prior to this, starting in 1991, he was the Far-Eastern correspondent of Liberation in Tokyo, covering Japan, Korea and the Russian Far East. Before joining Liberation as a foreign correspondent, Mr. Lampriere had been a business writer, reporter and editor in Paris, France. He holds a B.L. (licence en droit) from Paris I University (Pantheon-Sorbonne), a M.A. (diplôme) from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques in Paris and a graduate degree in journalism from the Centre de Formation des Journalistes in Paris. In 1999-2000, after 15 years in journalism, he attended the Mid-Career Program at the Kennedy School of Government where he completed a Master's degree in Public Administration. He is now specializing on corporate social responsibility and accountability issues and the relations between business and Human Rights.
1999 / 2000 Fellows
  Nora Ahmetaj, a Kosovar Albanian, began working in the field of human rights seven years ago, when Serbian President Slobodan Milosovich began his crackdown on Albanians in Kosovo.  She spent a number of years working to promote non-violence and peaceful resolution to the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and conducted research on human rights abuses committed against Albanians and Serbs during the conflicts. The focus of Ahmetaj's work at the Carr Center was on the poorly-understood Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). Her work demonstrates how the KLA adroitly pulled NATO into its war with the Serb authorities, and, in many parts of Kosovo, how it became more authoritarian and abusive with each success. In addition to her formal work, Ahmetaj spoke at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, for a special event entitled "Woman Uniting for Peace", where she presented the work of Woman in Black, a Belgrade-based NGO. She returned to the UN headquarters to participate in the final Preparatory Commission International Criminal Court. This session, organized by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice, finalized the Rules of Procedure and Evidence and the Elements of Crimes for the ICC. Ahmetaj also participated in two conferences; "Truth, Responsibility, and Reconciliation in Yugoslavia", Former Republic of Yugoslavia and "Women's Initiatives and Responses to War and Conflict", Women's Rights Group at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs.

  Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela held a joint fellowship with the Carr Center and the Women and Public Policy Program.  Prior to joining the Carr Center she spent two years working with South Africa's Truth and Reconcilaition Commission (TRC). There, she worked with the Human Rights Violations Committee and coordinated public hearings and outreach programs. Gobodo-Madikizela's training as a practicing psychologist and social worker contributed to her role as an expert witness in human rights cases throughout South Africa. She has published extensively on the work of the TRC including "Forgiveness on the Stage of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: The Road to Healing", Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology, and "Apartheid's Most Condemned Perpetrators: Fault Lines in Understanding Remorse and Rehumanization,", The Journal of Humanistic Psychology. The brunt on Gobodo-Madikizela's work at the Carr Center was the production of the book Hearing the Cry of Apartheid's Crusader, about Eugene de Kock, also known as "Prime Evil", South Africa's most notorious perpetrator of atrocities during the apartheid era. She has given many lectures  worked closely with a variety of NGOs and the United Nations, and participated in various notable discussions, including a symposium on forgiveness and reconciliation alongside Archbishop Desmond Tutu.  In Washington D.C. Ms. Gobodo-Madikizela was an honored guest at the White House, where she addressed members of Congress on conflict resolution strategies, and presented the work of South Africa's TRC at a workshop sponsored by the UN High Commission for Refugees.

  Oona Hathaway, a former law clerk to Justice Sandra Day O'Connor of the U.S. Supreme Court, received her J.D. from Yale in 1997. She is a member of the New York and D.C. State Bars, and has published on a variety of topics, including the political status of women in Kuwait and the global debate over biodiversity. Hathaway,, who was a joint fellow with the Carr Center and the Center for Ethics and the Professions, spend the year engaging in both legal practice and scholarship relating to human rights, conducting two research projects: understanding why nations subscribe to and comply with international human rights obligations, and examining how history shapes law. She presented two papers, "Path Dependence in the Law" and "The Puzzle of Compliance" at the Center.

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