October 13, 2010
United States Army Functional Concept for Protection: 2016-2028
TRADOC Pam 525-3-5
The U.S. Army Functional Concept for Protection describes “the broad requirements for protection of future Army forces. It emphasizes the need for Soldiers, leaders and organizations to identify, prevent, and mitigate a wide variety of threats to Army forces in a complex future operational environment.”
This document specifically addresses MARO in its discussion of full-spectrum operations.
3-5: Full Spectrum Operations (Page 26):
l. Mass atrocity response operations (MARO).
(1) Future Army forces must be prepared to conduct MARO as part of full-spectrum operations.15 In support of mass atrocity response operations, the future force must have the capability to protect a certain group (the victims) from another group (the perpetrators). Protection enables the first steps toward preventing mass atrocities by providing capabilities to assess risks and generate early warning of potential atrocities. These first steps require the U.S. to access intelligence and information concerning specific situations of interests wherever it exists, including foreign academia, international nongovernmental organizations, think tanks, grassroots civil society groups, church groups, other governments, and intergovernmental organizations.
(2) Mass atrocity response operations is usually conducted as part of a larger stability operation, and combined with myriad of tasks, such as protection. In planning and executing MARO, commanders must anticipate victims and perpetrators switching roles. They must also plan for and execute protection measures to identify, prevent, and mitigate second and third order effects that U.S. force intervention may provoke. Future Army force commanders must anticipate and plan to execute specific tasks to protect forces, key infrastructure, and the population in support of wide area security, reconnaissance and intelligence collection efforts, building credible security forces, establishing (or re-establishing) the rule of law, humanitarian relief, and restoring stable governance.
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The United States Army Funtional Concept for Protection: 2016-2028 TRADOC Pam 525-3-5.