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State-Building and Human Rights in Afghanistan & Pakistan


Future Prospects in Conference Home  |  Agenda  |  Presenters  |  Summary
Afghanistan and the Region
April 23-24, 2009 ~ Washington, D.C.  

Presenters & Attendees

Presenters:
Martine van Bijlert Martine van Bijlert is co-director of the recently established Afghanistan Analysts Network, a think tank based in Kabul, Afghanistan. She has been involved in Afghanistan since the early 1990s and has, among others, worked as Political Adviser to the European Union's Special Representative for Afghanistan (from 2004 to the end of 2008) and as an independent adviser with a specific focus on the realities involved in state building efforts in (post-) conflict societies.
James Clad James Clad is Professor of Near East and South Asian Studies at the National Defense University in Washington DC, where he works closely with national security strategists from Morocco, Pakistan, and other countries. He served in the U.S. government for several years, including as White House detail in Baghdad from April-June 2003.

Previously, Clad was Professor of South and Southeast Asian Studies at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service (1995-2002) and a director at Cambridge Energy Research Associates (1997-2002). He wrote for the Far Eastern Economic Review in the 1980s, and has held fellowships from St. Antony's College/Oxford, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Woodrow Wilson International Center, and Harvard's Center for International Affairs.

His 1991 book Behind the Myth: Business, Money and Power in Southeast Asia (Harper Collins) critiqued Asian capitalism long before the 1997 financial collapse. His second book, After the Crusade, written in 1996, examined U.S. foreign policy during the Clinton administration. Clad has appeared frequently on NPR, CNN, the BBC, and CNBC news, as well as on Nightline, MoneyLine, and other programs. As a Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute, he concentrates on a project seeking ways to improve America's effectiveness in foreign interventions. He speaks fluent Spanish, Italian, Indonesian, and Amharic - the predominant Ethiopian language.
Ambassador Richard Holbrooke Ambassador Richard Holbrooke is the U.S. Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan. He previously served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1999-2001. Ambassador Holbrooke was U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs from 1994 through 1996, during which time he led the Bosnian peace talks, which resulted in the Dayton Peace Accords. Prior to becoming Assistant Secretary of State, he was U.S. Ambassador to Germany.

Ambassador Holbrooke began his foreign service career in 1962, immediately after graduating from Brown University. After studying Vietnamese, he was sent to Vietnam and, in the following six years served in a variety of posts related to Vietnam - first in the Mekong Delta as a provincial representative for the Agency for International Development (AID), and then as staff assistant to Ambassadors Maxwell Taylor and Henry Cabot Lodge. In 1966 he was re-assigned to the White House, working on the Vietnam staff of President Johnson. In 1967-69, he wrote one volume of the Pentagon Papers, served as a special assistant to Under Secretaries of State Nicholas Katzenbach and Elliot Richardson, and simultaneously served as a member of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam.

Following these assignments Ambassador Holbrooke spent a year as a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. In 1970 he was assigned as Peace Corps Director in Morocco. In 1972, he resigned from the Foreign Service to become Managing Editor of the quarterly magazine Foreign Policy, a position he held until 1976. During 1974-75 he also served as a consultant to the President's Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy, and was a contributing editor of Newsweek magazine. In 1976 he coordinated National Security Affairs for the Carter-Mondale presidential campaign.

In 1977, President Carter appointed him Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, a post he held until 1981. During his tenure, among other major events, the United States established full diplomatic relations with China. He is the only person to have held the Assistant Secretary of State position for two different regions of the world.

Ambassador Holbrooke is a member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies, the Citizens Committee for New York City, and the Economic Club of New York. Prior to assuming his current post, he was a Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, the America-China Society, the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, and the International Rescue Committee. He is Chairman of the American Academy in Berlin. He is co-author of Counsel to the President, the memoirs of Clark Clifford, as well as numerous articles and columns on foreign policy.
Michael Ignatieff Michael Ignatieff was elected as a Member of Parliament for Etobicoke-Lakeshore in 2006, re-elected in 2008, and currently serves as the Leader of the Official Opposition and Interim Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. He is one of Canada's leading voices on the world stage in the field of human rights, democracy and international affairs. Michael has been involved in the Liberal Party for over forty years, starting out by knocking on doors for Lester B. Pearson in 1965 and serving as a delegate and National Youth Coordinator for Pierre Trudeau in 1968. Liberal values and ideas have followed him through his career, inspiring his writing, teaching, and decades-long commitment to public policy. More recently, in March 2005, Michael delivered the keynote address at the Biennial Liberal Convention in Ottawa, and in 2006, he ran for leadership of the Party.

Growing up, Michael studied history at the University of Toronto, only a short distance from the neighborhood where Michael and much of his family live to this day. After continuing his studies at Oxford and Harvard University, Michael returned to Vancouver for his first post teaching history at the University of British Columbia. Over the course of his career, Michael taught at Cambridge University in Britain, l'École des Hautes Études in Paris, and Harvard University, where for five years he served as Director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy. During this time, Michael also contributed to the World Economic Forum and served on several international commissions considering the future of NATO, humanitarian law, citizenship and minority rights.

In 2001, under the initiative of Jean Chrétien and Lloyd Axworthy, he was appointed as a Canadian commissioner on the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, a groundbreaking effort to help guide a United Nations response to humanitarian crises seen in Kosovo, Rwanda and Darfur. In 2005, Michael returned to the University of Toronto and was appointed a Senior Fellow of the Munk Centre for International Studies.

Michael has also worked in journalism and broadcasting, beginning as a staff writer at The Globe and Mail. He has been a popular host of programs on the CBC, TVO, the BBC and Britain's Channel 4, and remains a frequent contributor to several public affairs magazines and reviews.

Michael has written 16 books, including two of his best known works, The Rights Revolution, where he passionately explores Canada's contribution to the progress of individual rights and freedoms around the world, and Blood and Belonging, which was inspired by his CBC film of the same name.

He is the recipient of eleven honourary degrees, a Gemini Award from the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television, the Governor-General Award for non-fiction, and was recognized as the Parliamentarian of the Year in 2007. Michael is married to Zsuzsanna Zsohar and has two children, Theo and Sophie.
Hekmat Karzai Hekmat Karzai is currently the Director of the Centre for Conflict and Peace Studies (CAPS), one of the leading research centers in Kabul, Afghanistan. Prior to his current position, he served as a RMS Fellow at the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, Singapore, where his primary focus was the South and Central Asia regions. He conducted research in development, Security and conflict and is considered an authority on Afghanistan. He teaches various courses on conflict and security. From 2004-2005, he served as a Fellow at the Edmund Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University where he conducted research on Terrorism, Militant Islam, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the Al Qaeda movement.

Mr. Hekmat Karzai was appointed as the Head of the Political Department at the Embassy of Afghanistan at Washington, DC. in May of 2002. His duties included overseeing daily political and congressional affairs, serving as a direct link to the diplomatic and political community to liaise with US Congress and Executive Branch on policies, security, funding and other vital issues pertaining to Afghanistan.

Mr. Karzai has appeared on BBC World Service TV, CNN, CNN International, Al Jazeera English, among others. He has addressed the European Parliament and many think tanks including the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London) and Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, DC). He has lectured in prestigious institutions of higher learning such as Harvard and Tufts University on state building.

Mr. Karzai's Masters Degree dissertation titled "Strengthening Security in Contemporary Afghanistan: Coping with the Taliban" was published by the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. His study on suicide terrorism in Afghanistan "How to curve the rising suicide terrorism in Afghanistan" was the first on the subject and was published by the Christian Science Monitor and the Straits Times (Singapore). He has written extensively on Afghanistan, security (terrorism and insurgency) and governance and his articles have been translated in many languages. Mr. Karzai was born in Kandahar, Afghanistan and in addition to English has native fluency in Pashto and Dari. He is also fluent in Urdu (Hindi).
Clare Lockhart Clare Lockhart is co-founder and Director of the Institute for State Effectiveness, advising a number of countries on their approaches to state-building. Between 2001 and 2005, she worked as UN adviser to the Bonn Agreement in Afghanistan and advised the Government of Afghanistan, where she led a number of national initiatives. She returned in 2006-7 as Adviser to NATO and ISAF. Previously she managed a World Bank program on institutional and organizational analysis, designing governance and legal reform approaches, adapting techniques from the private sector and military domains to public sector management, designing toolkits, training seminars and operational guidelines.

She has practiced as a constitutional and human rights barrister and is trained in history, law and economics. She has authored a number of papers and toolkits on state-building and development, including the book, Fixing Failed States, OUP 2008.
David Mansfield David Mansfield currently works as an independent consultant, advising a range of bilateral, multilateral and non-government organizations, including the UK Government, the EC, the World Bank, GTZ, as well as various NGOs on both policy and operational issues with regard to illicit drugs in Afghanistan and on ‘alternative livelihoods' in particular.

He has worked in overseas drugs and development issues since 1991 and has experience in each of the major drug producing regions of South and South East Asia, and Latin America. David Mansfield has worked in the design, appraisal, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation, of development and control projects.

Throughout his career he has taken a pro-active approach to the drugs issue, seeking to inform policy development through generating a clearer understanding of the dynamics of the illicit drugs industry and documenting the overlap between conventional development and drug control agendas. Since 1997 he has been undertaking fieldwork in rural Afghanistan that has played a pioneering role in understanding the role of opium poppy in rural livelihoods and the dynamics of the farmgate trade in opium. This work has been at the forefront of policy development in Afghanistan and represents an important source of primary data for many policy analysts and academics.

His published work has sought to contextualize drugs as a development issue, and in particular has focused on developing pro-poor approaches to rural livelihoods interventions in illicit drug producing areas.
Jamie Metzl Jamie Metzl is Executive Vice President of Asia Society. He is responsible for overseeing the institution's strategic directions and overall program activities globally. An expert on Southeast Asian history and politics, Dr. Metzl has extensive government experience including service in the White House, the Department of State, and the US Senate. In 2004, he ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. House of Representatives from Missouri's Fifth Congressional District in Kansas City.

Dr. Metzl's government appointments have included Deputy Staff Director and Senior Counselor of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senior Coordinator for International Public Information and Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs at the Department of State, and Director for Multilateral and Humanitarian Affairs on the National Security Council. At the White House, he coordinated US government international public information campaigns for Iraq, Kosovo, and other crises. A Khmer speaker, he was a Human Rights Officer for the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) from 1991 to 1993, where he helped establish a nation-wide human rights investigation and monitoring unit for Cambodia.

Dr. Metzl has appeared widely on national media, including Meet the Press and the Today show. The author of a book on human rights in Southeast Asia, he has been featured in the New York Times, Foreign Affairs, and many other publications. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a Founder and Co-Chair of the Board of the Partnership for a Secure America, a former White House Fellow, and a former Aspen Institute Crown Fellow. He holds a Ph.D. in Southeast Asian history from Oxford University, a juris doctorate from Harvard Law School, and is a magna cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Brown University.

Dr. Metzl has completed four ironman triathlons and 20 marathons. His novel, The Depths of the Sea, was published by St. Martin's Press in May 2004.
Shuja Nawaz Shuja Nawaz is the author of Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within (2008) for Oxford University Press and FATA: A Most Dangerous Place for the Center for Strategic and International Studies (2009). He is a graduate of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, where he won the Henry Taylor Award. He was a television newscaster and producer with Pakistan Television from 1967 to 1972 and covered the 1971 war with India on the Western front. He has worked for The New York Times, the World Health Organization, as a Division Chief for the International Monetary Fund, and a Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and has widely written and spoken on military and politico-economic issues on radio, television, and at Think Tanks. He was Editor of Finance & Development, the multilingual quarterly of the IMF and the World Bank. He is now Director, South Asia Center, The Atlantic Council of the United States.
Ronald Neumann Ronald Neumann is the President of the American Academy of Diplomacy. He served three times as Ambassador; to Algeria, Bahrain and finally to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan from July 2005 to April 2007. Before Afghanistan, Mr. Neumann, a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, served in Baghdad from February 2004 with the Coalition Provisional Authority and then as Embassy Baghdad's principal interlocutor with the Multinational Command, where he was deeply involved in coordinating the political part of military operations in Fallujah, Najaf, and other areas.

Prior to working in Iraq, he was Chief of Mission in Manama, Bahrain (2001-2004), where, as Ambassador, he worked on maintaining the balance between urging progress on democratic reform and expanding solid relations with a friendly monarchy that was beginning important political reforms. Before that, Ambassador Neumann served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Near East Affairs (1997-2000), where he directed the organization of the first separately-funded NEA democracy programs and also was responsible for the bureau's work in developing the North African Economic Initiative for Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria. Before that assignment, he was Ambassador to Algeria (1994 to 1997) and Director of the Office of Northern Gulf Affairs (Iran and Iraq; 1991 to 1994). Earlier in his career, he was Deputy Chief of Mission in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and in Sanaa in Yemen, Principal Officer in Tabriz, Iran and Economic/Commercial Officer in Dakar, Senegal. His previous Washington assignments include service as Jordan Desk officer, Staff Assistant in the Middle East (NEA) Bureau, and Political Officer in the Office of Southern European Affairs.

Ambassador Neumann speaks some Arabic and Dari as well as French. He received State Department Senior Foreign Service pay awards in 2004, 2003, and 1999 as well as individual Superior Honor Awards in 1993 and 1990. He served as an Army infantry officer in Viet Nam and holds a Bronze Star, Army Commendation Medal and Combat Infantry Badge. In Baghdad, he was awarded the Army Outstanding Civilian Service Medal. He earned a B.A. in history and an M.A. in political science from the University of California at Riverside. He is married to the former M. Elaine Grimm. They have two children.
Barnett Rubin Barnett Rubin is Director of Studies and Senior Fellow at the Center on International Cooperation of New York University, where he directs the program on the Reconstruction of Afghanistan. He has worked at CIC since July 2000. During 1994-2000 he was Director of the Center for Preventive Action, and Director, Peace and Conflict Studies, at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. Rubin was Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for the Study of Central Asia at Columbia University from 1990 to 1996. Previously, he was a Jennings Randolph Peace Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace and Assistant Professor of Political Science at Yale University.

Dr. Rubin is a Director of Gulestan Ariana Ltd., a private company manufacturing essential oils and related consumer products in Afghanistan. In November-December 2001 he served as special advisor to the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General for Afghanistan, Lakhdar Brahimi, during the negotiations that produced the Bonn Agreement. He advised the United Nations on the drafting of the constitution of Afghanistan, the Afghanistan Compact, and the Afghanistan National Development Strategy.

Dr. Rubin received a Ph.D. (1982) and M.A. (1976) from the University of Chicago and a B.A. (1972) from Yale University. He also received a Fulbright Fellowship to study at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris in 1977-1978. He is currently chair of the Conflict Prevention and Peace Forum (a program of the Social Science Research Council), a member of the Executive Board of Human Rights Watch/Asia, and the Board of the Open Society Institute's Central Eurasia Project. During 1996-98 he served on the Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on Religious Freedom Abroad.

Dr. Rubin is the author of Blood on the Doorstep: the Politics of Preventing Violent Conflict (2002). He is also the author of The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System (2002; first edition 1995), Calming the Ferghana Valley: Development and Dialogue in the Heart of Central Asia (1999), Stabilizing Nigeria: Sanctions, Incentives, and Support for Civil Society (1998); Post-Soviet Political Order: Conflict and State Building (1998); Cases and Strategies for Preventive Action (1998); Toward Comprehensive Peace in Southeast Europe: Conflict Prevention in the South Balkans (1996), and The Search for Peace in Afghanistan: From Buffer State to Failed State (1995). Dr. Rubin has written numerous articles and book reviews on conflict prevention, state formation, and human rights. His articles have appeared in Foreign Affairs, Orbis, Survival, International Affairs, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The New York Review of Books.
Tamim Samee Tamim Samee returned to Afghanistan from the United States in late 2002 to participate in the process of rebuilding the country following the ouster of Taliban. Prior to returning to his native country, Tamim received his education in Computer Sciences and Applied Technologies in 1992 from University of Colorado and served as management and executive roles in a number of leading Telecommunication companies in United States, Canada, England, Brazil, and Mexico. Tamim's decision to return was based on the principle to directly participate in the process of building sustainable and long term peace by applying his experiences to the pressing and complex projects and to invest in the private sector to create meaningful jobs and workforce capacity.

From early 2003 to mid 2006 Tamim was the Chief Information Officer for the nationwide disarmament programme (DDR) in Afghanistan. This experience allowed him to renew his connections with his native country's diverse cultures, the post war culture and its extreme ravages, the security condition, the political landscape and its many players. More importantly, he developed a deep appreciation for the enormous challenges ahead in realigning Afghanistan to the path of peace and prosperity.

Coming from the Private Sector in the United States, since 2005 Tamim Samee has launched several successful private companies in Afghanistan. His decision to personally invest in the future of Afghanistan reaffirms his commitment to building the nation through economic independence, prosperity through jobs, new opportunities and peace through economic development. His private endeavors have yielded 2 Information Technology companies (Digistan and Ora-Tech Systems) implementing advanced computer technologies, a modern demonstration farm (Shamali Farms) including agro-business and exports showcasing superior Afghan products and a commercial magazine (Forooshi) facilitating commerce amongst the citizens in major Afghan cities. His most recent investments include the launch of www.tofa.af, a remittance based eCommerce system to reconnect the Afghan Diaspora to their loved ones in the old country, and the creation of a credit support facility (Etebar) to facilitate access to normalized banking and consumer credit which will promote participation and inclusion of the average citizen and SME's in developing new economic activity in Afghanistan through responsible use of credit and finance.

Tamim is an Executive board member of the Afghan Investment Climate Facility (AICF) along with CEO's of Siemens, Coca-Cola and Roshan. AICF is a $60 m facility setup with generous funding provided by Prime Minister Gordon Brown's office. He is the Head of the Advisory Board for the Afghanistan Center at Kabul University (ACKU), which is an historic document repository and research center set up by Louis and Nancy Dupree. He is also a Member of the Board of Trustees and Head of the Board of Advisors for the Turquoise Mountain Foundation (TMF). The foundation is investing in the regeneration of the historic commercial center of Kabul, providing basic services, saving historic buildings and constructing a new bazaar and galleries for traditional craft businesses.
Ambassador Teresita Schaffer Ambassador Teresita Schaffer is director of the South Asia Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). She came to CSIS in August 1998 after a 30-year career in the U.S. Foreign Service. She devoted most of her career to international economic issues and to South Asia, on which she was one of the State Department's principal experts.

From 1989 to 1992, she served as deputy assistant secretary of state for South Asia, at that time the senior South Asia position in the department; from 1992 to 1995, she was the U.S. ambassador to Sri Lanka; and from 1995 to 1997, she served as director of the Foreign Service Institute. Her earlier posts included Tel Aviv, Islamabad, New Delhi, and Dhaka, as well as a tour as director of the Office of International Trade in the State Department. She spent a year as a consultant on business issues relating to South Asia after retiring from the Foreign Service.

Her publications include "Sri Lanka: Lessons from the 1995 Negotiations," in Creating Peace in Sri Lanka (Brookings, 1998); two studies on women in Bangladesh; and "Kashmir: Fifty Years of Running in Place," in Grasping the Nettle (USIP, 2004). Her CSIS publications include Kashmir: The Economics of Peace Building (2005), Pakistan's Future and U.S. Policy Options (2004), Rising India and U.S. Policy Options in Asia (2002), and several reports on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India. Schaffer has taught at Georgetown University and American University. She speaks French, Swedish, German, Italian, Hebrew, Hindi, and Urdu, and has studied Bangla and Sinhala.
Michael Semple Michael Semple served as acting head of the European Union mission to Afghanistan until December 2007, when he was expelled from the country by the Afghan government for allegedly engaging with Taliban leaders. The UK claimed that any engagement that took place was the type of reconciliation discussions with lower-ranking Taliban members that had been sanctioned by the Afghan government. Semple had lived and worked for various groups in the Afghanistan region since the mid-1980s. As an employee of Oxfam International, he once helped set up schools across Afghanistan, many of which were subsequently destroyed by the Taliban.

Michele Shapiro is the Head of Public Relations and Events at New York University's Center on International Cooperation.
Rory Stewart Rory Stewart is the Ryan Family Professor of the Practice of Human Rights and the Director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. Stewart is the founder and Chief Executive of the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to the regeneration of the historic commercial center of Kabul, Afghanistan. Rory earned his BA and MA in Modern History and Politics, Philosophy and Economics from Balliol College, Oxford University, served as an officer in the British Army, and worked for the British Diplomatic Service in Indonesia, Montenegro and elsewhere, before taking two years to walk from Turkey to Bangladesh. He covered 6,000 miles on foot across Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal - a journey which he describes in his critically acclaimed book entitled The Places in Between. In 2003 he started working for the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) in Iraq as Deputy Governorate Coordinator (Amara/Maysan) and Senior Adviser and Deputy Governorate Coordinator (Nasiriyah/Dhi Qar). In recognition of his service in Iraq, he was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE) by the British Government in 2004. He wrote Occupational Hazards: My Time Governing in Iraq, published in the United States under the title The Prince of the Marshes, describing his experiences with the CPA. Rory spent the 2004-05 academic year at HKS as a Fellow at the Carr Center. He has also written for the New York Times Magazine and the London Review of Books, among other publications.
Amin Tarzi Amin Tarzi is the Director of Middle East Studies at the Marine Corps University in Quantico, Virginia. Dr. Tarzi has served as an Afghanistan analyst for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, where he compiled the weekly "Afghanistan Report" and wrote the Afghanistan sections for the "RFE/RL Newsline." Dr. Tarzi previously served as a Senior Fellow at the Center for Advanced Defense Studies. He has also served as a Senior Research Associate for the Middle East at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies of the Monterey Institute of International Studies, where he taught a graduate seminar on Middle East security policies and threat perceptions. A former U.S. Marine Corps member, Dr. Tarzi has also served as Political Advisor to the Saudi Arabian Mission at the United Nations and as Researcher/Analyst at the Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Dr. Tarzi's areas of research include the history, politics and state-building process in Afghanistan, U.S. policy in Iraq and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East, and Iranian security and threat perceptions including its missile and nuclear programs. Dr. Tarzi earned his Ph.D. and MA from New York University, and holds a BA from Queens College in New York.
J. Alexander Thier J. Alexander Thier is Director of the Future of Afghanistan Project at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP). He joined USIP as senior adviser in the Rule of Law Center of Innovation in 2005. He is also director of the project on Constitution Making, Peacebuilding, and National Reconciliation, as well as expert group lead for the Genocide Prevention Task Force. He is responsible for several rule of law programs in Afghanistan, including a project on establishing relations between Afghanistan's formal and informal justice systems.

Before joining USIP in 2005, Thier was the director of the Project on Failed States at Stanford University's Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. From 2002 to 2004, Thier was legal adviser to Afghanistan's Constitutional and Judicial Reform Commissions in Kabul, where he assisted in the development of a new constitution and judicial system.

Thier has also worked as a senior analyst for the International Crisis Group, a legal and constitutional expert to the British Department for International Development, and as an adviser to the Constitutional Commission of Southern Sudan. Thier worked as a U.N. and NGO official in Afghanistan during the civil war from 1993 to 1996, where he was the officer-in-charge of the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan in Kabul. He also served as coordination officer for the U.N. Iraq Program in New York. An attorney, Thier was a Skadden fellow and a graduate fellow at the U.S. National Security Council's Directorate for Near-East and South Asia. He received the Richard S. Goldsmith award for outstanding work on dispute resolution from Stanford University in 2000.

Thier has appeared as an expert commentator on NPR, CBS and the BBC and has written in the New York Times, The Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times, among others. He has a B.A. from Brown University, a master's in law and diplomacy from the Fletcher School at Tufts University and a J.D. from Stanford Law School.
Ambassador Francesc Vendrell Ambassador Francesc Vendrell is currently a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination (LISD) and the Frederick H. Schultz '51 Professor of International Policy at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Ambassador Vendrell served as the EU Special Representative to Afghanistan from 2002-2008. Prior to this, he was Special Adviser to the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs during Spain's EU Presidency. From January 2000 to December 2001, he was Personal Representative of the Secretary General for Afghanistan and Head of the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan (UNSMA). Between 1993 and 2000, Ambassador Vendrell served as Director for Asia and the Pacific Division in the UN Department of Political Affairs. In this capacity, he was senior advisor to, and subsequently Deputy Personal Representative of the Secretary-General for East Timor, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Cambodia and Papua New Guinea and Adviser to the Secretary-General on Myanmar. In 1992, Ambassador Vendrell served as Senior Political Adviser to the UN Special Envoy for Haiti and Director for Special Political Assignments, including serving as the Secretary General's Special Envoy for the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Between 1987 and 1992, he was Director for Europe and the Americas in the Office of the Secretary-General and the Secretary General's Deputy Personal Representative for the Peace Process in Central America, including the Guatemalan, El Salvador and Nicaraguan peace negotiations. Ambassador Vendrell was Director of Studies at the Hague Academy of International Law, Adjunt Professor of Human Rights and Yale Law School, Adjunct Professor at Rutgers Law School and Lecturer in Constitutional Law at the University of Papua New Guinea.
Marvin Weinbaum Marvin Weinbaum is a Scholar-in-Residence at the Middle East Institute. From 1999-2003, he served as an Afghanistan and Pakistan Analyst at the Bureau of Intelligence Research at the US Department of State. He is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois, where he served as Director of the Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. In 1996-1997, Weinbaum was a Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace. He held Fulbright Research Fellowships for Afghanistan (1989-90) and Egypt (1981-1982). Weinbaum is the author of numerous books, chapters, and articles, including "Human Rights, Culture and Politics in Northern Tier Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan" (2003) and "Pakistan and Afghanistan: Resistance and Reconstruction" (1994). He is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois, where he served as Director of the Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies.
Other Attendees:
Imtiaz Ali Imtiaz Ali is a Jennings Randolph Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace. Ali is working on a book on his native Tribal Belt region of Pakistan (Federally Administered Tribal Area, or FATA), the rise of the Pakistani Taliban, their ties with the Afghan Taliban and Al-Qaeda, and their regional and global security implications. He has developed contacts with a variety of leaders in the region over the years covering it for outlets that include the Washington Post, the BBC's Pashto Service, the Daily Telegraph and Dawn (Pakistan's English language daily). The World Economic Forum just recently nominated him as a Young Global Leader, which is offered to 200 people under the age of 40 each year.
Alia Afshar Alia Afshar is a Development Specialist with Development Associates, Inc. (DAI) where she is the Project Team Leader for three large, USAID-funded projects in Afghanistan. Ms. Afshar has 7 years of experience backstopping and managing complex USAID-funded projects in post-conflict countries. Alia has a strong grounding in alternative livelihoods, rural development, and stability programming. Ms. Afshar has worked in challenging transition environments including Afghanistan, Angola, Iraq, Liberia and South Africa. She holds a B.A. in International Affairs from the George Washington University and is currently working on a master's degree in public policy with a concentration in international development.
Tom Andrews Tom Andrews is the National Director of Win Without War, a coalition of forty-two national membership organizations including the National Council of Churches, the NAACP, the National Organization of Women, the Sierra Club, and MoveOn.org.

Andrews' leadership of Win Without War has thrust him into the national spotlight appearing on network television programs such as Meet the Press, NewsNight with Aaron Brown, Wolf Blitzer Reports, Lou Dobbs and Crossfire and through speeches and special events including an address to the National Press Club in Washington that was broadcast to a live national television and radio audience. Andrews is a widely known and respected strategist and organizer. Win Without War's campaign to lobby Congress generated over 1 million calls in a single day and its global candlelight vigil led to over six thousand events in 136 nations throughout the world.

Andrews is also President of New Economy Communications, a not-for-profit organization that provides strategic planning and communication services to individuals and groups working on human and labor rights issues at home and abroad. His clients include "No More Sweatshops - The Campaign for the Abolition of Sweatshop and Child Labor." He is Senior Advisor to the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, chaired by Former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. He has worked to promote democracy and human rights in emerging democracies throughout the world including Indonesia, Cambodia, Yemen, Algeria, Croatia, Serbia and Jordan and with international coalitions in Europe and East Asia.

Andrews served as a Member of Congress from the first Congressional District of Maine from 1991-1995. Upon his arrival in Washington, Andrews was elected president of the freshman class of newly elected Democrats. He served on the powerful Armed Services Committee as well as the Committee on Small Business and the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee and was a Deputy Majority Whip.

Andrews grew up on a farm in Easton, Massachusetts and moved to Maine to attend Bowdoin College where he earned a degree in Philosophy and Religion. His home is in South Portland, Maine.
Negah Anga Negah Anga works in the Office of Afghanistan at the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs (SCA/A) at the U.S. State Department.
Frederick Barton Frederick Barton is a senior adviser in the International Security Program at the Center for International and Strategic Studies (CSIS) and codirector of CSIS's Post-Conflict Reconstruction Project. He is currently on the World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Humanitarian Assistance, was a member of the Presidential Transition Agency Review Team on Development Assistance, and was the chair of the Obama for President Subgroup on Post-Conflict Reconstruction. He was also a member of the CSIS Commission on Smart Power, cochair of a the Working Group on Stabilization and Reconstruction at the U.S. Institute of Peace, cochair of the Working Group on Reconstruction and Development at the Princeton Project on National Security, and an expert adviser to the Iraq Study Group and the Task Force on the United Nations. An active contributor to public discussions through the press, panels, and speeches, and at congressional and international hearings, Barton was also a visiting lecturer at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University for five years, where he was the Frederick H. Schultz Professor of Economic Policy and lecturer on public and international affairs. His work is informed by 12 years of experience in nearly 30 global hot spots, including serving as UN deputy high commissioner for refugees in Geneva (1999-2001) and as the first director of the Office of Transition Initiatives at the U.S. Agency for International Development (1994-1999). A graduate of Harvard College (1971), Barton earned his M.B.A. from Boston University (1982), with an emphasis on public management, and received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Wheaton College of Massachusetts (2001).
Haji Nasrullah Baryalai Arsalai Haji Nasrullah Baryalai Arsalai is the founder and chairman of the Abdul Haq Foundation. The foundation promotes Abdul Haq's vision of a peaceful, independent and enlightened Afghanistan, through establishing schools and conducting political dialogue.

From 2002-2009, Arsalai was chief organizer of the People's Advisory Shura (Wolesi Mashvurati Shura), a mass movement of people in Nangarhar and Eastern Afghanistan aimed to mobilize popular participation in the Bonn political process. Significant achievements of this movement included organizing the consultations in Eastern Afghanistan on drafting of the constitution (2003), facilitating recruitment to the new Afghan National Army and opposing opium cultivation. In 2002, he established a monthly newspaper "Afghan Yawwalay" (Afghan unity).

In 1980, Arsalai joined Abdul Haq to help organize underground resistance cells against the Soviet occupation and its Afghan collaborators in Nangarhar and Kabul. In 1981, he migrated to Germany as a refugee and began conducting political activities in support of the jihad against the Soviets. This involved establishing the Hizb I Islami (Khalis) office in Germany and editing a newspaper "Al hijrat o al jihad." He conducted multiple fact-finding missions around Pakistan and Afghanistan during the period of Soviet occupation until 1989.

In February 1989, Arsalai participated as a delegate in the Rawalpindi shura to select the mujahidin's interim government. From 1989-1991, he served as political and cultural aide to Commander Abdul Haq, based in Peshawar. He ran the administration of the resistance front, published a weekly review of political and military developments and maintained his political contacts with Afghans and the diplomatic community. In this role, Arsalai also ran the administration for an important mujahidin initiative, the nationwide shura of Mudjahedin commanders, sar ta sari.

From 1993-1994, Arsalai ran the Liaison Office of Eastern Afghanistan in Peshawar, an Afghan initiative to coordinate humanitarian assistance to the east of the country during a period when Haji Qadeer headed the administration in Jalalabad. Appalled by the factional fighting among the mujahidin groups and the eventual rise of the Taliban, Arsalai returned to Germany in 1994, where he established successful family businesses in Bochum. These businesses included a car sales room and a hotel. He worked full time on these businesses until 26 October 2001, the day that Abdul Haq was killed by the Taliban for organizing uprisings against them.

Arsalai graduated from high school in Nangarhar Lycee in 1977. He did two years of undergraduate studies in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nangarhar, 1977-1979. He subsequently did German language training in University of Marburg, Germany and a range of other courses including project management, journalism, English and information technology.
Greg Behrman Greg Behrman works at the State Department Policy Planning staff and was previously a fellow at the Carr Center for Human Rights. He was also the Henry Kissinger Fellow for Foreign Policy at The Aspen Institute. He is the author of The Invisible People: How the U.S. Has Slept Trough the Global AIDS Pandemic, The Greatest Humanitarian Catastrophe of Our Time (Free Press; June 2004). The New York Times called the book, "[w]ell researched and unsparing," and an "important volume." The Baltimore Sun lauded the "eloquent history" as "[m]arvelous." The Washington Post Book World suggested that it was "[a]head of its time."

All of the proceeds from his first book were donated to Heartbeat, a South African-based not-for-profit that provides care for AIDS orphans. Behrman is on Heartbeat's Board of Directors. He was also the Coordinator for the Council on Foreign Relations Roundtable on Improving U.S. Global AIDS Policy.

Behrman has moderated Roundtable events with leading policy makers and experts and has been the featured speaker at The Council on Foreign Relations (Washington D.C.), The Asia Society (NY), The Commonwealth Club of California (San Francisco), The Foreign Policy Association (NY), Harvard, Yale, Princeton and dozens of other venues. He has appeared on NBC, PBS, C-SPAN, CNN, Fox News, CNBC and National Pubic Radio (NPR). His writing has appeared in Newsweek International, Los Angeles Times and International Herald Tribune.

He graduated magna cum laude with a BA in Politics and a certificate in Political Economy from Princeton University. He graduated with an M.Phil in International Relations from Oxford University. He also worked in the Principal Investment Area at Goldman Sachs & Co. in New York City for several years.

Behrman has held a world record in fly-fishing and has completed the New York City Marathon. An avid mountaineer, he has summitted Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Elbrus, in Africa and Russia, respectively. He is a member of The Explorer's Club in New York City, where he also resides.
Lakhdar Brahimi Lakhdar Brahimi has spent 40 years helping to keep the peace across the world. Now at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he lectures regularly in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Arab world on international relations, conflicts, and conflict resolution. Brahimi served as a Special Adviser of the United Nations Secretary-General from 2004-2005. In this role, he advised the Secretary-General on a wide range of issues, including situations in the areas of conflict prevention and conflict resolution.

Brahimi previously served as the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Afghanistan and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan from 2001-2004. Ambassador Brahimi was entrusted with overall authority for the political, human rights, relief, recovery, and reconstruction activities of the United Nations in Afghanistan. Mr. Brahimi previously served as the Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Afghanistan from July 1997 until October 1999.

In between his Afghanistan assignments, Mr. Brahimi served as Under-Secretary-General for Special Assignments in Support of the Secretary-General's Preventive and Peacemaking efforts. In this capacity, he chaired an independent panel established by Secretary-General Annan to review United Nations peace operations. The report, released by the panel in 2000 and known as the "Brahimi Report", assessed the shortcomings of the existing system of peacekeeping and made specific recommendations for change, focusing on politics, strategy and operational and organizational areas of need.

Prior to his first Afghanistan appointment, Mr. Brahimi served as Special Representative for Haiti (from 1994 to 1996), and Special Representative for South Africa (from December 1993 to June 1994). In the latter position, he led the United Nations Observer Mission until the 1994 democratic elections that resulted in Nelson Mandela taking the presidency of post-apartheid South Africa. He has also undertaken special missions on behalf of the Secretary-General to a number of countries, including Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Yemen, Liberia, Nigeria and Sudan.

Mr. Brahimi was Minister for Foreign Affairs of Algeria from 1991 to 1993. He served as Rapporteur to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit). From 1984 to 1991, he was Under-Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, and from 1989 to 1991, served as Special Envoy of the Arab League Tripartite Committee to Lebanon, mediating the end of the civil war in that country.

Mr. Brahimi was Diplomatic Adviser to the President of Algeria from 1982 to 1984, Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1971 to 1979, and Ambassador to Egypt and the Sudan, as well as Permanent Representative to the Arab League in Cairo, from 1963 to 1970. From 1956 to 1961, during Algeria's independence struggle, he was the National Liberation Front (FLN) representative in South-East Asia, resident in Jakarta.

Mr. Brahimi was educated in Algeria and France (law and political science), and is fluent in Arabic, English and French. He is married with three children.
Caroline Brearley Caroline Brearley is the Officer-in-Charge of the Afghanistan Desk at USAID.
Steven Brzozowski Steven Brzozowski is Research Assistant to Rory Stewart, Director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. Steven previously held positions at the Belfer Center for Science & International Affairs and the Center for International Development at HKS. Steven has his Master's Degree in Human Rights from the University of London - studying Human Rights Education - and his Bachelor's Degree in History from the University of Massachusetts. Steven produced the 60.30.1 light installation in honor of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (8-10 December 2008) that projected articles of the UDHR onto the buildings of Harvard's Law School, Kennedy School and Harvard Yard. Steven also managed the UDHR60 Speaker Series which brought leading academics and practitioners to the Center to discuss one of the UDHR articles. Steven is currently working with the Director on developing a program on State Building & Human Rights.
Ambassador Timothy Carney Ambassador Timothy Carney serves as the Coordinator for Economic Transition in Iraq. Ambassador Carney, who is based in Baghdad, reports directly to the Ambassador and works closely with Iraqi officials to ensure that Iraq's resources are brought to bear on the task of rebuilding the country. Previously, he served as the United States Charge d'Affaires to Haiti from August 2005 to February 2006, having been Ambassador to Haiti from 1998-2000. During his State Department career, he also served as U.S. Ambassador to Sudan; as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for South Asia; and as Director for Asian Affairs on the National Security Council Staff.

Ambassador Carney worked in UN Peacekeeping Missions after he witnessed the signing of the Paris Agreements by the Cambodian factions in 1991. He first became Director of Information and Education of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC 1992-93); he next worked as a Special Political Advisor to the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in Somalia (UNOSOM II 1993), and then in South Africa (UNOMSA 1994) for the elections. He was Senior Adviser at the Ministry of Industry and Minerals in Baghdad (March-June 2003) during the occupation of Iraq.

Earlier State Department postings also centered on countries in conflict: Saigon at the time of the Tet Offensive; Cambodia for the 1975 Khmer Rouge takeover; Lesotho for the cancellation of elections and declaration of a State of Emergency in 1970; and South Africa for the 1986 crisis of apartheid. He served in Thailand in the late 70s and early 80s at a time of domestic political turmoil, and monitored the Thai-Cambodian border as the Vietnamese ended the Khmer Rouge regime and during the subsequent refugee emergency. He was in Indonesia in the late 1980s.

Following his retirement in 2000, Ambassador Carney entered the private sector as a consultant in the areas of national security strategy, conflict resolution and crisis management. He has facilitated numerous seminars on National Security Planning in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and South Asia. He also served as Chairman of the board of the Haiti Democracy Project, a small think tank.

Born in Missouri in 1944, Ambassador Carney graduated from MIT in 1966 and later did advanced study in Southeast Asian affairs at Cornell. He speaks fluent Cambodian, French and good Thai. His publications center on Sudan, Cambodia, and wildlife conservation/hunting. Most recently, a partnership with a British photographer and with his wife produced a 336-page photo book, Sudan: The Land and the People that covers the entirety of Africa's largest country. He is married to journalist/author Victoria Butler and has a daughter.
Rajiv Chandrasekaran Rajiv Chandrasekaran is an Associate Editor of The Washington Post. He is the author of Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq's Green Zone. In 2006, Chandrasekaran served as assistant managing editor for The Washington Post's Continuous News department, which reports and edits breaking news stories for washingtonpost.com. From April 2003 to October 2004, he was The Post's bureau chief in Baghdad, where he was responsible for covering the American occupation of Iraq and supervising a team of Post correspondents. He lived in Baghdad for much of the six months before the war, reporting on the United Nations weapons-inspections process and the build-up to the conflict.

He took a sabbatical from The Post in 2005 to serve as the journalist in residence at the International Reporting Project at the Johns Hopkins School for Advanced International Studies in Washington and as a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center in Washington. Before the U.S.-led war in Iraq, he was The Post's Cairo bureau chief. Prior to that assignment, he was The Post's Southeast Asia correspondent, based in Jakarta, Indonesia. In the months following September 11, 2001, he was part of a team of Post reporters who covered the war in Afghanistan.

He joined The Post in 1994 as a reporter on the Metropolitan staff. He subsequently served as the paper's Washington-based national technology correspondent. A native of the San Francisco Bay Area, he holds a degree in political science from Stanford University, where he was editor in chief of The Stanford Daily. He lives in Washington, D.C.
Fotini Christia Fotini Christia is an Assistant Professor in Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She recently completed her PhD in Public Policy at Harvard University, where she was a recipient of research fellowships from the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. Her research interests deal with issues of ethnicity and civil wars and her dissertation addresses the question of civil war alliances.

Fotini has published work on the role of local elites in civil wars in Comparative Politics, and is presently working on two field projects of an experimental design, one in Afghanistan and one in Bosnia, that address the effects of institutions of cooperation in post-conflict, multi-ethnic societies. Fotini has also worked in the Middle East and Central Asia and has written opinion pieces on her experiences from Afghanistan, Iran, the West Bank and Gaza and Uzbekistan for the New York Times, the Washington Post and the Boston Globe. She graduated magna cum laude with a joint BA in Economics-Operations Research from Columbia College and a Masters in International Affairs from the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University.
Noah Coburn Noah Coburn is a graduate student of anthropology at Boston University and currently works with the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, which is a nonprofit organization investing in the regeneration of the historic commercial center of Kabul.
Shoshana Coburn Shoshana Coburn is Managing Director of the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, which is a nonprofit organization investing in the regeneration of the historic commercial center of Kabul.
Alexandra Courtney Alexandra Courtney works as a Conflict Specialist and Civil-Military Advisor in the Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation at USAID. Since joining USAID in 2004, Ms. Courtney has focused exclusively on addressing development challenges in failing states. Serving in Afghanistan, she developed a strategic operating model between technical offices and the Provincial Reconstruction Teams. Currently, Ms. Courtney serves as a resident advisor to USAID's office of Conflict Management and Mitigation on civil-military planning and operations and on issues related to counterinsurgency. In this capacity, she leads Agency efforts to synchronize civilian and military planning and programming in counterinsurgency and counterterrorism environments. She is an active liaison for the Agency to the State Department's Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization and has also served as a liaison officer to DoD's Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict, Stability Operations Office, where she assisted with strategy development for a whole of government strategic framework for counterinsurgency. She was educated at Yale University in sociology and international studies and received her masters in violence, conflict and development from the University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies. She is also a Fulbright Scholar.
Lawrence Dolan Lawrence Dolan is the Officer-in-Charge of the Pakistan Desk at USAID.
Etienne de Gonneville Etienne de Gonneville has been a counselor to the French Ambassador to the U.S. on Asian and UN Affairs since July 2008. Prior to that, from July 2007 to July 2008, he was special assistant to the Ambassador and Deputy Director of the Press and Communication Office of the French Embassy. From September 2006 to June 2007, he was a "Transatlantic Diplomatic Fellow" in the US Department of State's Office for Afghanistan.

Mr. de Gonneville entered the French Diplomatic Service in December 1997 after completing his military service, where he held the rank of Platoon Commander. He was posted to the French Embassy in Tehran, Iran, from 2000 to 2003 as a Political Officer, and also served in the Foreign Ministry's Asia Department (1998-2000) and in its Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Department (2003-2006). Mr. de Gonneville is an Alumnus of the Paris Institute of Political Studies and of the Sorbonne University.
Joy de Menil Joy de Menil is Executive Editor of Viking Penguin. She served as Senior Editor at The Atlantic from 2005-2008. Previously Editorial Director at William Heinemann in London and a Senior Editor at Random House in New York, she has published a number of acclaimed books, including Margaret MacMillan's Paris 1919, Milt Bearden and James Risen's The Main Enemy, Nancy Milford's Savage Beauty, and Azar Nafisi's Reading Lolita in Tehran, a #1 New York Times bestseller. In the acknowledgements for his book A Middle East Mosaic, the preeminent scholar Bernard Lewis wrote that Joy's "combination of a sharp mind and gentle manner, of vision and vigilance, have made this a much better book than it would otherwise have been." Joy grew up in Paris until the age of ten. Before coming to The Atlantic in 2005, she spent six months living in Pakistan and two years in London. She also spent a year before college (Harvard) traveling overland through Africa, from Morocco to Zimbabwe. She is a trustee of the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, which is a nonprofit organization investing in the regeneration of the historic commercial center of Kabul.
Arthur Dewey Arthur (Gene) Dewey's public and private career background cuts across several practitioner disciplines: Military; Diplomatic; United Nations; and Nongovernmental Organizations.

In January 2002 President Bush appointed Dewey to the post of Assistant Secretary of State, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration. He retired in July 2005 after 43 years of public service. In December 2006 Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice appointed Dewey to his current position as the U.S. representative on the International Independent Group of Eminent Persons dealing with human rights violations in Sri Lanka.

From 1996-2001 Dewey was a consultant with Booz-Allen and Hamilton in civil-military training simulations with the military combatant commands in Latin America, Europe, and Asia - bringing realistic political and humanitarian dimensions into post-Cold War military training exercises. He served two years as Professor in Residence at the U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was Founding Director of the NGO successor to the House of Representatives Select Committee on Hunger - the Congressional Hunger Center. Following collapse of the Soviet Union, Dewey was named director of the Office of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance to the former Soviet Union. During the "Refugee Decade" of the Eighties, he served for five years under President Reagan in the State Department as Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau for Refugee Programs. Subsequently he was named a United Nations Assistant Secretary-General and served four years in Geneva as UN Deputy High Commissioner for Refugees.

In his twenty-five years as a military officer, Dewey's assignments ranged from two Vietnam combat aviation assignments - including command of a combat helicopter battalion - to chief of the Army's Political-Military Division in the Pentagon. During his Vietnam battalion command, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross as commander of the U.S. component of a three country combined prisoner rescue operation in Cambodia.

Dewey is a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point and received his Masters degree from Princeton University. He was selected as a White House Fellow in 1968, and President Nixon appointed him Director of the President's Commission on White House Fellowships in 1971. During his Army War College year he served as an Army Research Associate at the Graduate Institute for International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Dewey was selected as a Senior Military Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations in New York in 1975.

In recognition of more than 43 years of extraordinary public service, the Association of Graduates, U. S. Military Academy, presented Dewey in May 2006 with the West Point Distinguished Graduate Award.

Gene Dewey is married to the former Priscilla Parce from Utica and Syracuse, New York. The Deweys live in Bethesda, Maryland, while continuing to maintain the farm near Mansfield, Pennsylvania where Gene was born and raised. Their daughter, Elisabeth Parce Ainsworth, her husband Antony Ainsworth, and granddaughter Charlotte reside in New York City.
Suzanne DiMaggio Suzanne DiMaggio is Director of the Asia Society's Asian Social Issues Program (ASIP), which focuses on a range of political, economic, and social challenges facing the Asia-Pacific region. She is currently in the process of launching an Asia-Pacific Environment Initiative aimed at developing policy solutions at the national, regional, and multilateral levels to address climate change and related global threats to security, and informing public policy dialogue in Asia and the United States. Ms. DiMaggio previously served as the Vice President of Global Policy Programs at the United Nations Association of the USA (UNA-USA), where she oversaw efforts to promote multilateral approaches to global problem-solving and encouraging constructive US international engagement.
John R. Drexel John R. Drexel IV (also known as "Nick" ) is Chairman of Sage Advisors LLC. The firm provides investment and business services, including advice on deal structuring, strategic planning, management and Board governance. Current assignments focus on mobile power generation, K 12 education, life sciences, agriculture and alternative energy. He is an Advisor or Trustee of several (unrelated) family offices, including their charitable trusts and private equity holdings. He is a Director of several privately owned companies and LLCs.

Mr. Drexel was formerly President of Concord Capital Management, Managing Director of Kidder Peabody & Co., Inc. and President and CEO of its subsidiary, Kidder Peabody International Investments. He is affiliated currently with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (Incorporator), the Pilgrims of the United States (Exec. Committee and Foundation President), the US Priory of the Order of St. John (Prior Emeritus and Life Governor), the New Hudson Foundation (Trustee), the Pave the Way Foundation (Director). He recently completed terms as a Trustee of Drexel University and an Advisory Director of New Zealand's Trade and Industry N. America Advisory Board.
Tobias Ellwood Tobias Ellwood is Member of Parliament for Bournemoth East, United Kingdom. He was born in New York (due to his parents' overseas posting at the time). He grew up in Bonn, Germany and Vienna, Austria, but returned to the UK to complete his first degree at Loughborough University. Whilst at Loughborough Tobias was elected President of the Students' Union.

He spent five years in the Army with The Royal Green Jackets, head quartered in Winchester and served in Northern Ireland, Cyprus, Kuwait, Germany, Gibraltar and Bosnia. On leaving the army Tobias worked as a researcher for the former Defence Secretary, the Rt Hon Tom King MP (now Lord King) in Westminster and also in his constituency of Bridgwater. He returned to university to complete an MBA at City University Business School. Tobias then moved to the London Stock Exchange for two years where he was a Senior Business Development Manager and then for the law firm Allen and Overy.

Tobias was elected as Member of Parliament for Bournemouth East in May 2005. In January 2006 he was appointed Opposition Whip and in July 2007 was promoted to Shadow Minister for Culture Media and Sport. Tobias is married and lives in Strouden. He is a governor at the Queen's Park Infant School and has also been a borough councillor.
David Emil David Emil is a businessman who owns and operates several businesses in the New York metropolitan area. Mr. Emil was the owner of Windows on the World, the restaurant atop the World Trade Center. On September 11, 2001, Windows on the World was destroyed and 79 of Mr. Emil's employees were killed in the attack. Mr. Emil and two colleagues founded the Windows of Hope Family Relief Fund, raising more than $25 million to assist the children and families of restaurant workers killed on September 11. Between 1979 and 1994, Mr. Emil held several positions in New York state government, most notably as President and CEO of the Battery Park City Authority from 1988 to 1994.
C. Christine Fair C. Christine Fair is a senior political scientist with the RAND Corporation. Prior to rejoining RAND, she served as a political officer to the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan in Kabul and as a senior research associate in USIP's Center for Conflict Analysis and Prevention. Prior to joining USIP in April 2004, she was an associate political scientist at the RAND Corporation. Her research focuses upon the security competition between India and Pakistan, Pakistan's internal security, the causes of terrorism in South Asia, and U.S. strategic relations with India and Pakistan. She has authored and co-authored several books including The Madrassah Challenge: Militancy and Religious Education in Pakistan (USIP, 2008), Treading Softly: Lessons Learned from Counter Insurgency Operations on Sacred Places, co-edited with Sumit Ganguly (OUP, 2008), Fortifying Pakistan: The Role of U.S. Internal Security Assistance (USIP, 2006); Securing Tyrants or Fostering Reform? U.S. Internal Security Assistance to Repressive and Transitioning Regimes (RAND, 2006); The Counterterror Coalitions: Cooperation with Pakistan and India (RAND, 2004); Urban Battle Fields of South Asia: Lessons Learned from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan (RAND, 2004) and has written numerous peer-reviewed articles covering a range of security issues in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

In recent years, her research has concentrated upon the security competition between India and Pakistan, Pakistan's internal security, and U.S. strategic relations with India and Pakistan. She also focuses upon various empirical questions with regards to the phenomena of political violence and terrorism.

Current projects include an in-depth analysis of militants in Pakistan and the means by which they were recruited into such organizations, a critical survey of ideological and operational manuals of Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, and a multi-country study to exposit the characteristics of persons who support terrorism.

She is a many-time survivor of the University of Chicago. She earned her B.S. in Biological Chemistry in 1991. She also completed an M.A. from the Harris School of Public Policy as well as an M.A in South Asian Languages and Civilizations in 1997. In 2004, she received her Ph.D. in South Asian Languages and Civilizations. As a casual observer may notice, she also has extensive experience in the areas of military manpower as well as issues pertaining to women and children.
Jorie Feldman Jorie Feldman is the foreign policy legislative assistant for Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA). She graduated from the University of Wisconsin and received a master's degree in international affairs from the George Washington University.
Nathaniel Fick Nathaniel Fick is the Chief Operating Officer for the Center for a New American Security, and previously worked for CNAS as a Fellow. Prior to joining CNAS, he served as a Marine Corps infantry and reconnaissance officer, including operational assignments in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq. In 2007, Fick was a civilian instructor at the Afghanistan Counterinsurgency Academy in Kabul. He is the author of the New York Times bestseller One Bullet Away (Houghton Mifflin, 2005). His writing has appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Post, and USA Today, among other publications, and he is a frequent contributor to CNN, NPR, and the BBC. Fick is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute of Strategic Studies, and serves as a Director of the Marine Corps Scholarship Foundation and the Rockefeller Center for Public Policy at Dartmouth College. He holds a B.A. in Classics from Dartmouth, an MBA from the Harvard Business School, and an MPA in international security policy from Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government.
Dexter Filkins Dexter Filkins is a foreign correspondent for The New York Times, having joined the newspaper in 2000. From March 2003 until August 2006, he was a correspondent in the paper's Baghdad bureau. In 2007 and 2008, Filkins was a fellow at the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard University, where he was completing a book based on his experience in Iraq and Afghanistan. He is the author of "The Forever War,'' published this month by Alfred A. Knopf. In 2001 and 2002, Filkins covered the war in Afghanistan.

Filkins' work in Iraq and Afghanistan has received a number of awards, including a George Polk award for his coverage of the assault on Falluja in November 2004. During the attack on Falluja, Filkins accompanied a company of Marines, a quarter of whom were killed or wounded in eight days. He has been a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize twice, from Iraq and Afghanistan. Prior to that, he was the New Delhi bureau chief for The Los Angeles Times. During that time, he witnessed the rise of the Taliban and Al Qaeda in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Filkins has an M.Phil. in International Relations from Oxford University and a B.A. in government from the University of Florida, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He grew up in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Paul Fishstein Paul Fishstein served as Director of the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU), a Kabul-based, policy research institution, from 2005 to 2008. Before joining AREU as Deputy Director in 2004, Paul worked on USAID-funded health strengthening programs in Kabul and provincial levels. During 1989-93, Paul managed refugee assistance and "cross-border" reconstruction activities in Quetta and Islamabad, Pakistan. Paul has also done research on agricultural policies at the World Bank and provided management assistance to developing country health organizations. Paul first worked in Afghanistan during 1977-79 as a teacher trainer in Kabul and northern Afghanistan. He is currently involved in a research project looking at the relationship between aid and stabilization in Afghanistan. He holds an MS in Agricultural and Resource Economics and a BA in English Literature.
Lauren Frese Lauren Frese is staff to the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations' Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. She received a BA in International Affairs from Lafayette College in 2003. She also holds a Masters degree from the Elliott School of International Affairs at the George Washington University.
Thomas Freston Thomas Freston resigned as CEO of Viacom Inc. and MTV Networks in September 2006, a position he had held since 2004. In this capacity, Mr. Freston oversaw all cable network properties, the motion picture businesses of Paramount Pictures, and the publishing operations of Famous Music. He began his career with MTV in 1980 when he joined Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment (WASEC) and was one of the founding members of MTV: Music Television in 1981. In 1987, Tom was appointed CEO of MTV Networks and held the position until his promotion in 2004. Previously, he had worked in advertising and also ran a textile and clothing business in New Delhi and Kabul for eight years. Mr. Freston is a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History, Emerson College and DreamWorks Animation.
Jack Garrity Jack Garrity assumed the position of Executive Director of the Asia Society in Washington D.C. in August, 2007, after living and working for over 20 years in numerous Asian countries. Jack has had extensive private and public sector experience working with publicly-listed Asian corporations, international multilateral institutions and U.S. Government agencies in both Asia and America. His areas of specialization include international business, economic development policy, emerging markets equity funds and investment portfolio.

Jack started his professional career working for the Congressional Budget Office in Washington, D.C., Jack then worked as a development economist on rural development, transport and agricultural projects (funded by USAID, World Bank and ADB) in the Philippines, Thailand, Bangladesh, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia and the Dominican Republic. He later worked with the World Bank Group as a Senior Capital Markets and financial institution's Advisor and head of Corporate Relations at the International Finance Corporation, where he also ran IFC's International Business Council.

Jack's corporate experience in Asia includes working as CEO, Managing Director, Investor Relation's Director and Foreign Investment Advisor with: GT Asia Pacific Holdings and Tuan Sing Holdings Ltd. in Singapore, Shanghai and Melbourne, where he was in charge of hotel operations in Australia, housing development in China and electronics manufacturing in Singapore and Malaysia; Emerging Markets Infrastructure Fund and the Gajah Tunggal Group in Jakarta, where he was responsible for strategic planning, fund raising and debt restructuring for telecommunications, petrochemical, automobile tire and natural resource companies; and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Manila, where he published Asia's first emerging markets report, "Capital Markets Development in Six Asian Countries".

For the past 30 years Jack has also been very active in the arts management field assisting his late wife, Philippine - American painter Pacita Abad, organize over 30 museum and gallery painting exhibitions in Asia, Europe and the U.S., as well as the artistic painting of a 55-meter bridge in Singapore. Recently, he built and established the Pacita Abad Center for the Arts and a non-profit foundation in the Philippines to help provide artistic opportunities for Asian artists.

Jack graduated from Harvard University and earned a MBA from Stanford University and a MA in Economics from Boston University. His most important education, however, has come from being a "Roads Scholar," traveling overland across more than 100 countries around the globe. Jack is married to Kristiyani, who is from Indonesia, and they now live in Washington, DC.
Kerry Healey Kerry Healey served as Lieutenant Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 2003-2007. She is a key member of the U.S. State Department's Public-Private Partnership for Justice Reform in Afghanistan.

As Lieutenant Governor, Healey assumed a broad range of responsibilities in the Romney-Healey administration, including leading the administration's successful efforts to strengthen drunken driving penalties, establish a witness protection and gang violence prevention program, increase penalties and supervision for sex offenders, and increase protections for victims of child abuse, sexual assault and domestic violence.

Kerry Healey graduated from Harvard College in 1982, and was awarded a Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship. She earned a Ph.D. in political science and law from Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. In 1985, Kerry was a visiting researcher in the International and Comparative Legal Studies Program at Harvard Law School. She continues to pursue her interest in international affairs as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Ms. Healey was a Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government's Institute of Politics in the Spring of 2007 and was a visiting Fellow at the Center for Public Leadership in the Fall of 2007.
Cynthia Helms Cynthia Helms is the author of An Ambassador's Wife in Iran, which documents her life in the country during the four years her husband Richard served as U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1972-1976). During her time in Iran, Helms studied Persian poetry, inveigled her way to remote areas and archeological digs, and astutely observed the role of women in Iran.
Ahmed Humayun Ahmed Humayun is a researcher at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS). His work at CNAS focuses on counterinsurgency, stabilization and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Pakistan. He has conducted extensive field research on Islamist politics and militancy in northwest Pakistan, published on local governance and development in Afghanistan, and is currently working on a new CNAS report on Afghanistan and Pakistan (coming out in June). Prior to CNAS, he helped develop an early warning system for violent conflict at Georgetown University's ISIS Center. He has an undergraduate degree from Georgetown University and a graduate degree in international relations from the Fletcher School at Tufts University.
Brigadier General Phil Jones Brigadier General Phil Jones is the UK's Military Attaché in the United States, a position he has held since October 2007. General Jones was commissioned into the British Army Infantry in 1981 and has served in the UK, Germany, Gibraltar, Northern Ireland (8 tours), Central America, Georgia and the Caucasus, NATO (twice), and the Balkans. He served three tours of duty in Afghanistan as an Infantry Battalion commander in Kabul in 2002, and was the Director Plans for CJTF180 in 2003 and Military Advisor to UNAMA in 2006-07.
Dr. Rodney Jones Dr. Rodney Jones is a Program Officer at the United Institute for Peace's Center for Conflict Analysis and Prevention. Over a career that spans four decades, Jones has experience working for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the U.S. Department of State, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and has run a consulting firm since 1995. Jones is also a former USIP grantee. His primary policy focus over the years has been on nuclear nonproliferation and arms control, with special emphasis on regional security and proliferation in South Asia. He has done research in the field on internal politics and development in both India and Pakistan, and travels to the region frequently. Supporting his new position at USIP, he brings a deep understanding of internal politics in Pakistan and its relationships with neighboring countries. Thirty of Jones' publications focus on Pakistan.
Kabir Kakar Kabir Kakar was born in 1964 in Kabul, Afghanistan and migrated with his family from Afghanistan to Washington, DC in 1980. He received his undergraduate education at NOVA and George Mason University in economics, hence his professional career has surrounded the financial industry, and at one point his career has even taken him to Chicago for five years. Kabir is now back in Washington, DC where he lives with his wife. He directs the business development and marketing operations for AET - International - Advanced Engineering Technologies - which, among many other projects, is also contributing toward advancing the needed infrastructure in Afghanistan.

Kabir has been actively supporting the efforts of the US and the international community in Afghanistan since September 11. His focus has been reaching out to help the Afghani children, orphanages in particular. Both of Alex's parents are Pashtons; his mother was born in Jallalabaad and his father was born in Kandahar - both of his parents' families have a long history in Afghanistan.

Kabir has fluent knowledge of both Dari, (Farsi) and Pashto, and he also speaks Urdu functionally. Kabir's uncle, Hedayat Amin-Arsala was the Foreign Minister in Afghanistan in 1996 before the Taliban usurped the country. Mr. Amin-Arsala is currently a possible candidate in the Afghan Presidential Election.
Rahim Kanani Rahim Kanani is a first year Master's student in Religion, Ethics and Politics at Harvard Divinity School, where he focuses on Islamic studies and international security policy. He has a keen and demonstrated interest in the intersection of politics, religion, security, human rights, and NGOs, having engaged in opportunities with Harvard Kennedy School's Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Harvard School of Public Health's Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, Harvard's Pluralism Project, Amnesty International's USA Headquarters, and various United Nations agencies focusing on issues of international torture and gender violence in conflict zones. Most recently, Rahim has taken up a research position with the new Justice and Human Rights Initiative at Harvard Kennedy School's Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations. Rahim holds a BA in Philosophy from the University of Western Ontario and an MSc in Global Politics from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Kenneth Katzman Kenneth Katzman is a specialist in Middle East affairs for the Congressional Research Service. He has served in government and the private sector as an analyst in Persian Gulf affairs, with special emphasis on Iran and Iraq. In his current position, Dr. Katzman analyzes U.S. policy and legislation on the Persian Gulf region for members of Congress and their staffs. He also has written numerous articles in various outside publications, including a book entitled The Warriors of Islam: Iran's Revolutionary Guard. During 1996, Dr. Katzman was assigned to the House International Relations Committee. He has spoken before several groups and appeared in numerous media outlets discussing his areas of specialty. These appearances include CNN, NBC Nightly News, Nightline, The News Hour with Jim Lehrer, MBC (Middle East Broadcasting Company), and Independent Television (London). Dr. Katzman holds a Ph.D. in political science from New York University.
Lorelei Kelly Lorelei Kelly directs the National Security program at the American Progressive Caucus Policy Foundation - an organization that she co-founded. The foundation builds communication and educational relationships between progressive Members of Congress and their supportive networks of experts, NGOs and new media sources. Her other most recent work was with the White House Project, a New York based organization whose mission is to elevate women's voices in culture, media and politics. Lorelei was active with the underground democracy movements of eastern Europe throughout 1989, her professional background includes teaching at Stanford University's Center on Conflict and Negotiation, Senior Associate at the Henry L. Stimson Center, a DC think tank, and more than 8 years working on bipartisan national security education in Congress--where she founded "Security for a New Century" a study group in both the House and Senate. She has a Grinnell College BA and a Stanford MA. Lorelei has been trained as a professional mediator in both domestic and international conflict resolution settings. She also attended the Air Command and Staff College program of the US Air Force and continuing education programs at National Defense University and Army War College. Her latest publication is "A Woman's Guide to Talking About War and Peace" available free at www.allianceforpeacebuilding.org. Previously, she wrote a guidebook for citizens entitled "Policy Matters Educating Congress on Peace and Security."
Nick Krafft Nick Krafft serves as the World Bank's Country Director for Afghanistan. Krafft, a British national, started in this position in December 2008. He was previously Director of Operations in the World Bank's Human Development Network. He has also served as manager of the Bank's program in the West Bank and Gaza and as Program Director for Iraq. He also was the Bank's representative to the Office of the UN Secretary General's Special Envoy for Gaza Disengagement.
Odd-Inge Kvalheim Odd-Inge Kvalheim is the Minister Counselor for Political Affairs at the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Washington, DC. His role oversees the embassy's Political Section, which handles all political matters involving the U.S. and Norwegian governments, including high-level visits, political consultations, and briefings on issues of mutual interest. The section also analyzes and reports on political developments in the United States, U.S. bilateral political relations with other countries, and U.S. politics on international organizations. Among the dialogue partners are the U.S. State Department, the National Security Council, and the U.S. Defense Department. Important areas are security policy, disarmament, international developments, prevention of conflict, promotion of democracy, and human rights.

Prior to assuming his current position in August 2007, Kvalheim was a senior Adviser to Prime Ministers Bondevik and Stoltenberg from May 2004-August 2007. He also served as an Assistant Director General, Department of Security Policy from October 2001-May 2004. From August 2000-October 2001, he served in the Coordination Unit for the Norwegian membership in the UN Security Council. He has also previously served in Norway's Permanent Mission to the UN (1997-2000) and in the Royal Norweigian Embassy in Berlin, London, and Abidjan, Nigeria. He received his Bachelor of Business Administration from Simon Fraser University in 1988, and his MBA from Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration in 1990.
Lt. Elizabeth Leavitt Lt. Elizabeth Leavitt currently serves as the Project Officer of the Afghanistan Health Initiative in the Office of the Secretary, Office of Global Health Affairs (OGHA), U.S. Department of Human Services. She started at OGHA in August 2008 and deployed to Afghanistan to follow-up on some of the activities and progress of the clinical and public health teams. Prior to OGHA, Lt. Leavitt served as a research assistant in the modeling and simulation group in the Biomedical Advanced Research & Development Authority (BARDA) under the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness & Response. She was selected by the Office of Force Readiness & Deployment (OFRD) to serve as the first Executive Assistant/Public Information Officer (EA/PIO) for the USPHS teams onboard humanitarian ship-based missions and deployed from April-June 2008 as the EA/PIO for the USS Boxer USPHS team. Prior to joining the Corps in September 2007, she worked in the private sector for 5 years in public health preparedness. She deployed to Baghdad, Iraq (December 2003-May 2004) working on water and sanitation projects with the Coalition Provisional Authority.

Lt. Leavitt earned her Masters in Public Health in International Health Policy & Programs from George Washington University and her B.S. in Biology & International Relations from the College of William & Mary.
Dr. Maleeha Lodhi Dr. Maleeha Lodhi is among the most accomplished female professionals in the Muslim world, with extensive experience in diplomacy, media, and teaching. Her diplomatic experience spans eleven years, representing Pakistan as Ambassador in the United States and Great Britain. She is the recipient of the President's award of Hilal-e-Imtiaz for Public Service in Pakistan. Lodhi has also received an Honorary Fellowship from the London School of Economics in 2004 and an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters from London's Metropolitan University in 2005.

She served as a member of the UN Secretary General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Affairs from 2001 to 2005. In 1994, Lodhi was selected by Time magazine as one of a hundred people in the world - the only one from Pakistan - who will help to shape the 21st century. She has addressed top Think Tanks and other foreign policy forums across the world, drawing on her diplomatic skills and media background. Lodhi has been the editor of Pakistan's leading English daily, The News and among the country's top political commentators. Lodhi taught Politics and Political Sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science for five years - from 1980-1985.

Lodhi is the author of two books: Pakistan's Encounter with Democracy and The External Challenge both collections of her essays on contemporary issues.
Rhoda Margesson Rhoda Margesson is a Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy in the Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division at the Congressional Research Service (CRS), which is part of the legislative branch of the federal government and works exclusively as a nonpartisan analytical, research, and reference arm for Congress. Dr. Margesson conducts research and policy analysis on international organizations and global issues, with a focus on humanitarian assistance and intervention, disaster relief, displaced populations and migration, and some aspects of human rights. She also covers humanitarian and development issues in Afghanistan. As a member of the United Kingdom delegation with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Union, she regularly serves as an election observer. Formerly an Associate with Harvard's Program on International Conflict Analysis and Resolution and prior to joining CRS, Rhoda Margesson worked in the conflict resolution field on both domestic and international projects. She also held research and teaching fellow positions at both the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Margesson earned a Ph.D. and a M.A.L.D. from the Fletcher School.
Joe Mata Joe Mata has worked in the Department of State's Office for Afghanistan since early 2006. He currently covers issues related to, governance and internal political affairs in Afghanistan. Prior to joining the Department of State, Mr. Mata worked in Afghanistan with the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) for close to two and half years as a political affairs officer. Mr. Mata holds an MA in International Affairs from the George Washington University.
Lizanne McBride Lizanne McBride has spent over 17 years working in humanitarian and international development in a range of positions. Most recently, Lizanne worked with the International Rescue Committee (IRC), a humanitarian aid agency supporting refugees and communities impacted by violent conflict. Within IRC, she held the position of Senior Director for Strategic and Post-Conflict Development. Prior to this post, she served as Director for the London-based Post Conflict Development Initiative, promoting understanding on issues related to post war reconstruction. In the field, Ms McBride served as IRC's Country and Deputy Director for nearly five years in Rwanda. In that role, she helped design and implement tracing and reunification programs for children left unaccompanied after the genocide, and conducted one of the largest and most comprehensive programs on fostering the integration and development of adolescents within communities. She recently completed a Visiting Fellowship at Stanford University's Center for Democracy, Development and Rule of Law, where she worked with professors on evaluation systems for community driven reconstruction in post-conflict. She is a former Peace Corp Volunteer in Kenya, and holds an MA in International Relations and a BA in Business Administration.
Tyler Moselle Tyler Moselle is a Research Associate and Program Manager at the Carr Center where he works on state-building, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and national security. He holds a bachelor's in Middle Eastern and African history from BYU and a master's in politics from Harvard. He has published papers and reports on political philosophy, international history, counterinsurgency, and human rights.
Rani Mullen Rani Mullen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Government at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. She also currently holds the position of Visiting Scholar with the South Asian Studies and International Development Program of the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington, DC. She is the author of "Afghanistan in 2008: State Building at the Precipice," which was published in the January/February 2009 issue of Asian Survey.
Jasmine Nahhas Jasmine Nahhas di Florio is Vice Chair of Afghan Women Leaders Connect. She also is Vice President of the Education For Employment Foundation, dedicated to youth employment in the Middle East and North Africa. Formerly an attorney at the international law firm Davis Polk & Wardwell in New York, Jasmine also was an attorney at the U.S. Treasury Department where she worked on international issues. She has consulted the United Nations on building private-public sector partnerships. Jasmine is a Rhodes Scholar, Fulbright Scholar and Frank Knox Scholar.
Asma Nassery Asma Nassery is a consultant on Afghanistan policy to the Asia Society.
Paul O'Brien Paul O'Brien is the director of the aid effectiveness team at Oxfam America. He came to Oxfam after spending five years in Afghanistan, where he advised the senior economic adviser to the president and two ministers of finance on aid coordination, development planning, and policy reform. He was the senior international adviser to the Afghan government in the development of the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (interim) and the Afghanistan Compact. Prior to that, he worked for CARE International as their Afghanistan advocacy coordinator and Africa policy adviser. Previously, O'Brien was the president of the Echoing Green Foundation, which uses venture philanthropy principles to support social entrepreneurs, and a litigator in New York for Cravath, Swaine & Moore. He is the co-founder of the Legal Resources Foundation in Kenya and the founder of the Human Rights Research and Advocacy Consortium in Afghanistan. O'Brien has a juris doctorate from Harvard Law School and has published on humanitarian policy, human rights, and emerging trends in development.
Richard O'Hara Richard O'Hara is a member of the Political/Governance team in the Office for Afghanistan Affairs at the US Department of State. His primary focus is the forthcoming elections in Afghanistan. Mr. O'Hara has been with the State Department since October 2008, as a secondee from the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Prior to joining the State Department, Mr. O'Hara was posted to the British Embassy in Afghanistan, where again his main focus was the Afghan elections.
Wyndee Parker Wyndee Parker is national security adviser for House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. She previously served as deputy staff director and general counsel for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Parker also serves on the American Bar Association Advisory Committee on Law and National Security. Parker holds a bachelor's from Duke University and a JD from the Ohio State University College of Law.
Barmak Pazhwak Barmak Pazhwak is Program Officer for Afghanistan in the Grant Program at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP). Pazhwak came to USIP from the U.N. Development Program where he was the senior international adviser to the Minister of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, government of Afghanistan. Before that, he was director of program development and faculty with Southwestern University and Global College where he developed the international development curriculum and taught courses. He has 18 years of experience in the design and management of humanitarian relief and socio-economic development programs with NGOs, government and the UN system in Afghanistan, in Central and South Asia and the Great Lakes region of Africa. He holds a B.S. in economy and management of agriculture from the University of Kabul in Afghanistan, and a master's (with distinction) in rural social development from University of Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom.
Robin Lynn Raphel Robin Lynn Raphel, a career U.S. Foreign Service Officer, served in Baghdad as a member of the Iraq Reconstruction Team during the initial stages of the U.S. occupation. She served as senior Vice President at the National Defense University in Washington from 2000-2003.

Under the Clinton administration, she served as United States Ambassador to the Republic of Tunisia from 1997-2000. She was the first Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs from 1993-1997. During that period, she managed U.S. relations with the Taliban government which had come to power in Afghanistan, and which was ousted by the U.S. after the September 11 terror attacks in 2001.

She began her career as a lecturer in history at Damavand College in Tehran, Iran. She first worked for the United States Government as an economic analyst for the CIA from 1973 to 1975. She then moved to Islamabad, Pakistan where she worked for the U.S. Agency for International Development as an economic/financial analyst. She then joined the State Department.

Upon her return to Washington, DC in 1978, Ambassador Raphel worked in the Office of Investment Affairs in the Economic and Business Bureau; on the Israel Desk; Staff Aide for the Assistant Secretary for the Near East and South Asian Affairs Bureau; and as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs. In 1984 she was assigned to the U.S. Embassy in London where she covered Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, and Africa. She served as Counselor for Political Affairs at the U.S. Embassy in Pretoria (1988-1991), and at the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi (1991-1993). In August 1993, she was named the first Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs.

Ambassador Raphel received a B.A. in history and economics from the University of Washington. She pursued graduate studies in history at Cambridge University and earned an M.A. in economics from the University of Maryland. Her foreign languages are French and Urdu.
Jonathan Reiber Jonathan Reiber is an international security analyst based in Washington, D.C. His professional specialization is in U.S. foreign and defense policy, counter-terrorism, counterinsurgency, and security sector reform in South Asia and North Africa. He is currently a Fellow at the Institute for Global Maritime Studies.

Prior to his current position, Mr. Reiber was a Research Manager at a New York-based emerging market consulting firm, covering South Asia and Africa. He lead projects on the future of political stability in Pakistan, the force and ideological structure of the Pakistan Army, political and social trends in North Africa, and maritime security.

As a policy advisor to the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Sudan, Mr. Reiber drafted and coordinated policy programs relating to armed groups in Southern Sudan and Darfur. Mr. Reiber has also been a Thomas J. Watson Fellow in South Africa, Italy, India, Turkey and Cyprus. His current work focuses on armed organizations in South Asia and the political and economic affairs of the Indian Ocean region.

He is a graduate of Middlebury College, where he majored in Religion, and of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

Tom Reott works at the Office for Afghanistan in the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs (SCA/A) at the U.S. State Department.
Diana Rowan Rockefeller Diana Rowan Rockefeller is Founder and Chair of Afghan Women Leaders Connect, a Special Program of Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors, Inc. A philanthropist and activist focusing for three decades on women's economic, educational and social equity issues, Diana Rockefeller served 14 years as a Vice President and Trustee of the Rockefeller Family Fund in New York, with personal emphasis on programs for women's economic empowerment and environmental conservation. Diana Rockefeller is a member of the U.S. State Department's U.S. Afghan Women's Council, as well as the Council on Foreign Relations' U.S. Foreign Policy and Women Advisory Group. She has worked with the Islam-Related Funders' Working Group, led by senior professionals from the Carnegie Foundation and Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Ms. Rockefeller is a member of Rachel's Network, an international group of women environmentalists (named in honor of Rachel Carson, environmental scientist and author of Silent Spring). She is also a member of the Alaska Conservati on Foundation's New York Council, with a personal focus on cultural survival, ocean conservation and global warming issues in Alaska and the Arctic Circle.
Cynthia Ryan Cynthia Ryan is Principal of The Schooner Foundation, a progressive family foundation that focuses primarily on human rights, peace, and security. Cynthia is a current or former trustee of the Ploughshares Fund, National Braille Press, Women for Women International, and the National Association of Health Education Centers. She is a member of the Peace & Security Funders Group, the International Human Rights Funders Group, and Grantmakers Without Borders. She serves on the Women's Leadership Board at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. She is the Outreach Chair of the Advisory Committee of the Women's Rights Division at Human Rights Watch. Cynthia received her Bachelor of Arts from the New School for Social Research in New York and a Masters of Arts from the School of Oriental & African Studies at the University of London in England. She is a contributing author in the newly published book, Women, Philanthropy and Social Change: Visions for a Just Society. Cynthia currently resides in Washington, D.C. where she is personally involved in progressive politics.
Mariam Sherman Mariam Sherman serves as the World Bank Country Manager for Afghanistan, a position she has held since 2006. She has worked on the World Bank's Afghanistan program in Washington since late 2002. Prior to that, she worked in the Indonesia Country Management Unit at the World Bank. Ms. Sherman joined the World Bank in 1997 working on the West Bank and Gaza program and has also worked in central units on partnerships and forest strategy. Prior to joining the Bank she worked with development organizations and NGOs in Jordan, Morocco, West Bank and Gaza and South Africa. Ms. Sherman also speaks Arabic. She has a BA (Hons) in Middle Eastern Studies and an MS in Development Management.
Christopher Seeley Christopher Seeley is Technical Area Manager of the Livelihoods sector at Development Associates, Inc. (DAI). Seeley is an expert in alternative development, environmental management, and agricultural infrastructure. He has over 25 years of experience implementing development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, Afghanistan, and the United States. Seeley has over a decade of experience in the Andean Region, working on USAID-funded Alternative Development programs and helping promote and consolidate licit livelihoods options for coca growers, and he is currently DAI's Senior Technical Advisor for a broad portfolio of Alternative Development and stability programs in Afghanistan. He has worked extensively with local municipalities, nongovernmental organizations, producer associations, and bilateral and multilateral donors in work-force development; increasing the competitiveness of market-oriented value chains; and the participatory rehabilitation, construction, and repair of farm-to-market road networks, agricultural infrastructure, irrigation systems, and public works. He holds a M.Sc. in Rural Development from the University of London, Imperial College.
Sarah Sewall Sarah Sewall has worked at the nexus of national security and humanitarianism throughout her career in government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. She currently teaches at the Harvard Kennedy School and is program director for two programs at the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy: Mass Atrocity Response Operations (MARO) and National Security & Human Rights. Her research focuses on U.S. national security strategy, civil-military relations, and the ethics of fighting insurgencies and terrorism. She is completing, with John P. White, a year long assessment of senior civil-military decision-making. In 2007, she founded the MARO Project to create a military concept of operations for intervening to halt mass atrocity.

Her prior work with the U.S. military included writing the introduction to the University of Chicago edition of the Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual (2007). Sewall was the first U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Assistance during the Clinton Administration. She previously had served for six years as Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell. Just prior to joining the Kennedy School, she edited The United States and the International Criminal Court (2002) at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She serves on the Center for Naval Analysis Defense Advisory Committee, the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Offensive Information Operations and several non-profit boards. Educated at Harvard and Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, she lives in Wayland, Mass. with her husband, a State Representative, and their four daughters.
Brooke Shearer Brooke Shearer is a trustee of several not-for-profit organizations devoted to cultural heritage preservation and economic and educational opportunities for women; she is also a consultant to several global health organizations.

Ms. Shearer formerly served as the first executive director of Yale University's World Fellows Program. The Program brought emerging leaders from throughout the world to Yale for study focused on global challenges.

During President Bill Clinton's first term, Ms. Shearer headed the President's Commission on White House Fellowships. During her eight years of government service, Ms. Shearer worked as a Senior Advisor in the Office of the Secretary of Interior where she focused on international conservation issues, including global climate change, water resource management and cultural heritage preservation. She initiated a global conservation partnership with The World Bank and other multilateral development organizations to advance the development of national parks and protected areas. She began sustainable development projects in Jordan, Indonesia, Croatia, and the Republic of Georgia, among others. Ms. Shearer previously worked as a corporate investigator and a journalist.
Emma Shercliff Emma Shercliff works with the Turquoise Mountain Foundation, which is a nonprofit organization that is investing in the regeneration of the historic commercial center of Kabul. She is a Board member of the World Computer Exchange and was formerly Managing Director of the Macmillan English Campus (2006-08). In 2002-2003, she worked at the British Council Tehran. She has also worked at Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (1997-2002).
Simon Shercliff Simon Shercliff is the First Secretary, Foreign Security and Policy at the British Embassy in Washington. Shercliff graduated from Cambridge with a BA (Hons.) in Natural Sciences in 1995. He worked for two years as a volunteer Chemistry teacher in a Government School in Tanzania, on the Voluntary Services Overseas program.

In 1998, Shercliff returned to the UK to join the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Throughout his career he has held a variety of positions in London and around the world. He initially worked at the Strategic Planning Unit of the Resource Budgeting Department in London. After that he was selected for his first posting as a political officer in the British Embassy, Tehran. He worked in Iran for three years from May 2000, having first been taught Farsi to an operational level.

On leaving Iran in July 2003, Shercliff spent a short period in the Iraq unit in London, before deploying to Baghdad in September 2003 as the Private Secretary to Sir Jeremy Greenstock, the Prime Minister's Special Representative for Iraq. He was awarded the Order of the British Empire for his work in Iraq.

Shercliff returned to London in May 2004 to work in the FCO Press Office, as a spokesman for Iran and Iraq issues. After a year, he was promoted to be the Chief Press Officer for the FCO. Then in quick succession he was given the acting roles of first Deputy Director of Communications, and then Director of Communications and Press Secretary for the Foreign Secretary.

Shercliff arrived in Washington as a First Secretary working on Counter Proliferation issues, with a focus on Iran, in November 2006. He spent three months as a political officer on Temporary Duty in the British Embassy in Kabul between November 2007 and February 2008. He now covers Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran issues at the British Embassy in Washington.
Daniel Simons Daniel Simons is research associate for India, Pakistan, and South Asia at the Council on Foreign Relations. He received an MA in Intelligence and International Security, where he graduated with Distinction and wrote his thesis on U.S.-Pakistan relations. His op-eds have been published in the Newark Star-Ledger, the New Statesman Online (UK), and Dawn (Pakistan). Mr. Simons graduated with a BA in History, summa cum laude, from the University of Pennsylvania.
Natalija Stamenkovic Natalija Stamenkovic is director of Democracy, Governance and Community Development at International Relief and Development (IRD). She brings a wealth of expertise to the organization in democracy and governance, rule of law, and refugee assistance/asylum experience. Before joining IRD Ms. Stamenkovic served as the Senior Rule of Law Advisor for Europe and Eurasia at the U.S. Agency for International Development. Prior to that she served as a Senior Prosecutorial Reform Advisor to Lord Paddy Ashdown at the Office of the High Representative in 2004, and in 2000, she joined the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as a Legal Advisor in Bosnia Herzegovina. She also practiced law for five years in the State of Maryland both as a private practitioner and an Assistant Public Defender. Ms. Stamenkovic has a J.D. from American University and is fluent in Russian and Serbo-Croatian.
Joanne Trotter Joanne Trotter joined the Aga Khan Foundation USA as Director of Programs in May 2008. Previous posts with the Aga Khan Foundation include a two and a half year posting in Afghanistan as Head of External Relations & Grant Management, and two years as a Senior Program & Policy Officer in AKF's UK office. Joanne has over 12 years of overseas experience in education programming, including assignments in Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, and the Czech Republic. Joanne obtained her MSc in International Development from the University of Bath in the UK with a special focus on citizenship, civic education and governance.
Alanna Van Antwerp Alanna Van Antwerp is a Research Assistant at the National Defense University's Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies. She serves as an assistant to Lt. General David Barno USA (ret.), who is the center's director.
Susan Vitka Susan Vitka brings over 20 years of experience providing strategic and financial advice to start-ups and mature institutions in the private and social change sectors. Earlier in her career, Ms. Vitka was a principal at Charles River Associates and The Brattle Group and she maintains an independent advisory practice. In recent years, Ms. Vitka has focused primarily on investing in and assisting social change organizations working on global health, human rights, sustainable development, and conservation. She is especially interested in building healthy organizations capable of effecting lasting change in her areas of interest. She has served on numerous boards in the US and abroad, including Women for Women International, Women for Women International UK (as chair), and Physicians for Human Rights, and serves as a trustee for two family foundations. She serves on the Advisory Board of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School.
Leonardo Vivas Leonardo Vivas is a 2008-2009 Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School's Carr Center for Human Rights Policy. Leonardo is a sociologist from Central University in his native Venezuela. He has published two books about Venezuela's political crises and co-edited another about grass roots management. In the US, Leonardo has been a fellow and associate researcher at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard University, founder and Executive Director of Latin Roots, and Lecturer at Tufts University, where he has taught a course about the Chavez Era in Venezuela. He is also devoted to advocating for democracy in Venezuela, mainly through the Boston-based organization VENERED. He has published several articles at the Fletcher Forum of World Affairs about Venezuela and is finishing a forthcoming book provisionally titled, "Revolution vs. Democracy, Venezuela's Ambiguous Journey under Hugo Chávez."
Ghazala Wardak Ghazala Wardak works for Advance Engineering Technologies International and is the daughter-in-law of Afghan Defense Minister Abdul Rahim Wardak, whose job portfolio includes security sector reform, state building, and fighting terrorism and narcotics trafficking.
Andrew Wilder Andrew Wilder is the Research Director for Policy Process at Tufts University's Feinstein International Center. Wilder joined the Feinstein Center in January 2007 to lead the Center's research on Politics and Policy in countries affected by conflict. Andrew's areas of interest include state-building, governance, and aid-effectiveness, with a specialization on Afghanistan and Pakistan. Prior to joining the Center he worked in Afghanistan where he established and was the Director of Afghanistan's first independent policy research institution, the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU). Between 1986 and 2001, Andrew worked for several different international NGOs managing humanitarian and development programs in Pakistan and Afghanistan, including for six years as the Director of the Pakistan/Afghanistan program of Save the Children (US). He is the author of The Pakistani Voter (Oxford University Press, 1999), a co-author of A Guide to Government in Afghanistan (AREU, 2004), and the author of several book chapters, journal articles and briefing papers. His recent research and publications have looked at police reform policies in Afghanistan, Afghan refugee education policy in Pakistan, the politics of civil service reform in Pakistan, electoral politics and policies in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and the politics of sub-national administration in Afghanistan. Andrew has a BSFS degree from Georgetown University, and a MALD and PhD from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.
Tod Wilson Tod Wilson is Deputy Director and Senior Advisor for Transitional Security at the State Department's Office of Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS).
Zsuzsanna Zsohar Zsuzsanna Zsohar has had a distinguished career as a freelance publicist and once worked as head of publicity at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). She is the wife of Michael Ignatieff, interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada.
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