Mansfield, David, "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?"

Title: “Where Have All the Flowers Gone? Assessing the Sustainability of Current Reductions in Opium Production in Afghanistan”
Author: David Mansfield
Publication Date: 5/1/2010
Abstract: Opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan is currently in decline. This is not just in the north, centre and east of Afghanistan, as has been the case in the past, but also in the south, where opium poppy cultivation has become increasingly concentrated since 2007. Reasons for the current fall in opium poppy cultivation differ by area. Reductions in opium production in other provinces are less to do with the actions of powerholders and more to do with economics and the priority farmers place on food security. Ultimately, it is important to recognise that increasing levels of wheat production do not reflect a sustainable shift from opium production, but instead are a sign of market failure, growing concerns over food security, and coercion.
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