Research Reports

Faculty Authors:

'NATO and Complex Operations: The Challenge of Responding to Mass Atrocity' in NATO Defense College's Forum Paper 14, 'Complex Operations: NATO at War and On the Margins of War'
Sarah Sewall,  July 1, 2010

Project on the Means of Intervention - Summary of Findings
Sarah Sewall,  September 1, 2003


U.S. Policy and Practice Regarding Multilateral Peace Operations
Sarah Sewall,  February 1, 2001

Published in February 2001 as a Carr Center Working Paper, this piece describes and seeks to explain the cycle through which United States policy toward multilateral peace operations has traveled over the past decade. Identifying and then tracing the evolution of key factors that shaped U.S. policy, the paper argues that the U.S. failure to strengthen UN peace operations has undermined other stated American foreign policy objectives. The paper will be published as a chapter in the forthcoming Multilateralism and US Foreign Policy (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001).

The United States and the International Criminal Court
Sarah Sewall,  September 1, 2000

This working paper is the outgrowth of further collaboration with the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. Focusing on the issues surrounding United States support for an International Criminal Court (ICC), Sarah Sewall addresses questions of U.S. national interest, domestic opposition, salient risks and benefits, and suggests a new approach for the incoming administration. Published in September 2000 as a Carr Center Working Paper, it became part of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights In the National Interest 2000: Human Rights Policies for the Bush Administration report under the chapter title “Supporting the International Criminal Court.”

The Internet and Human Rights
Sarah Sewall,  June 1, 2000

As part of its collaboration with the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights in helping the organization develop its quadrennial "In the National Interest" publication, the Center produced a chapter on Information Technology and Human Rights. The piece, which drew on KSG student research from 1998, argues that the U.S. government should expand international Internet access and broaden its conception of Internet training in order to maximize the Internet's potential contributions to democracy and human rights. It was published in June 2000 as a Carr Center Working Paper.

Other Carr Authors:

Responsibility to Protect: Why Libya and not Syria?
Dan Kuwali,  March 1, 2012

Generation Facebook in Baku. Adnan, Emin and the Future of Dissent in Azerbaijan
Gerald Knaus,  March 15, 2011

Murder in Anatolia. Christian missionaries and Turkish ultranationalism
Gerald Knaus,  January 12, 2011

A very special relationship. Why Turkey's EU accession process will continue
Gerald Knaus,  November 11, 2010

Winning Hearts and Minds in Afghanistan? Examining the Relationship between Aid and Security in Balkh Province
Paul Fishstein,  November 1, 2010

Afghanistan has been a testing ground for a key aspect of counterinsurgency doctrine, namely that humanitarian and development projects can help to bring or maintain security in strategically important environments, and by "winning hearts and minds" undermine support for radical, insurgent, or terrorist groups. The assumption that aid projects improve security has lead to a sharp increase in overall development funding, an increased percentage of activities programmed based on strategic security considerations, and a shift of development activities to the military. Given what is at stake, it is essential that policy makers understand whether and how aid projects can actually contribute to security. This new case study examines the drivers of insecurity, characteristics of aid projects and aid implementers, and effects of aid projects on the popularity of aid actors and on security in an area of Afghanistan which has been among the most peaceful, but which over the last year has seen increasing insecurity. The research confirmed the widespread expressed dissatisfaction with post-2001 development activities, sometimes in contradiction of on-the-ground realities. Respondents ascribed insecurity largely to unemployment and poverty, ethnic factors, and poor governance. Unlike in other study areas, the international military were not described as a major source of instability, most likely due to the lack of conflict to date between the military and communities. While military personnel expressed the belief that development projects could help achieve the limited objective of force protection, most Afghan and international respondents expressed skepticism about the ability of aid projects to reduce insecurity in the long-term. The findings have implications not just for relatively secure areas, but also more generally for the effectiveness of aid projects as a stabilization tool. This provincial case study is the second of five anticipated case studies, and is part of a larger comparative study in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Horn of Africa of the effectiveness of development assistance in promoting stabilization objectives.

Drugs and (Dis)order: a study of the opium trade, political settlements and state-making in Afghanistan
David Mansfield,  November 1, 2010

This paper is a contribution to research being undertaken by the Crisis States Research Centre on patterns of economic resource mobilisation and rent appropriation under conditions of fragility, and the ways in which these shape political relations and institutions. The authors are primarily concerned with the political economy of post-Bonn Afghanistan with a particular focus on the role of the drugs industry and its impact on processes of state-making.

Beyond Wait and See: The Way Forward for EU Balkan Policy
Gerald Knaus,  May 28, 2010

Policy Brief designed as input to the debates on EU policy towards the Balkans on the eve of an EU-Balkan summit July 2010.

“Persuasive Prevention: Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union”
Dan Kuwali,  October 19, 2009

Micro/Macro Afghanistan
Tyler Moselle,  June 1, 2009

Compensating Civilian Casualties
Jonathan Tracy,  November 3, 2008

This paper examines monetary aid available to civilians harmed by U.S. armed forces, specifically the implementation of the Foreign Claims Act and the condolence payment program in Afghanistan and Iraq. While the author appreciates the efforts made by the military lawyers and service members involved in adjudicating claims of civilian harm, serious problems plague the execution of these two systems. Both legal errors and inappropriate policy decisions limit their effectiveness. The author offers several concrete recommendations that may be easily implemented to fix these defects. Successful implementation of the Foreign Claims Act and the condolence payment program are integral to success for the U.S. military in Afghanistan and Iraq and in future engagements.

Ranking Rights: Problems and Prospects for a Quantitative Global Human Rights Index
-ALT-AUTHOR-STR- ,  August 1, 2008

MHR 1-4

The Future of Human Rights Measurement: Towards an International Survey of Rights
-ALT-AUTHOR-STR- ,  August 1, 2008

MHR 1-3

Climate Change Fuels Forced Migration
-ALT-AUTHOR-STR- ,  August 1, 2008

MHR 1-2

Human Rights Reasons for Preferring Individual Measures of Inequality to Aggregate Measures
-ALT-AUTHOR-STR- ,  August 1, 2008

MHR 1-1

The Concept of Wold Order
Tyler Moselle,  June 19, 2008

This paper explores the concept of world order through historical empires, international relations theory, and current political alliances.

More Sweat... Less Blood: US Military Training and Minimizing Civilian Casualties
Bonnie Docherty,  November 1, 2007

Natural Evil in Politics
Tyler Moselle,  September 13, 2007

This paper explores the concept of natural evil in political philosophy through the works of Plato, Aristotle, Confucius, Hegel, Hume, and Chomsky. The work begins with an exploration of natural right, or natural justice, in ancient political theory then moves through modern political theory with focused chapters on Hume’s empiricism and Chomsky’s anarcho-syndicalism. Finally, the paper concludes with a chapter on the concept of progress.

- ANONYMOUS - ,  July 6, 2006

This workshop report will serve as an excellent introductory guide for practitioners who are interested in tackling the challenge of measurement in the field of human rights. It provides an outline of the workshop as well as a collection of frameworks and case examples aimed at breaking down the barriers that keep human rights organizations from developing impact metrics the rest of the world can understand.

Children In Conflict: Eradicating the Child Soldier Doctrine
Romeo A. Dallaire,  October 27, 2005

This paper is grounded on the belief that the child soldier problematique might benefit from a more detached analysis than it usually receives. While the authors share the emotional horror at conditions faced by many helpless children forced into violent conflict by unscrupulous adults, we also think that it is not useful to try to separate the problem from its political, security, economic or social contexts. Contemporary dialogue seldom goes deeper beneath the surface of the problem to look at underlying issues associated with basic assumptions about the nature of states or the ways in which political power can be harnessed or challenged by non-state actors. Fundamental notions about the relationships between obligations, agency and human rights under conditions of conflict need also to be considered as part of any serious attempt to intervene on behalf of children. Children are part of larger contexts and thus the attempt to carve out a protected space for them must take into account the social, economic and political factors affecting the communities in which they live.

Measurement and Human Rights: Tracking Progress, Assessing Impact Report 2005
- ANONYMOUS - ,  June 1, 2005

Following our successful conference, “Measuring Impact in Human Rights: How Far Have We Come, and How Far to Go?” (May 5-7, 2005), we published this useful introduction to the value of measurement in human rights research and to the issues facing those wishing to incorporate measurement into their field work and research.

Negotiated Access: Humanitarian Engagement with Armed Nonstate Actors
Max Glaser,  October 25, 2004

This essay analyzes the meaning of the term 'negotiated access' in the context of the provision of humanitarian aid in war zones and its transformation over the time in the changing context of conflicts. In concentrates in particular on humanitarian engagement with Armed Non State Actors (ANSA) in the context of collapsed, failed or weak states, and analyses the various modes of control ANSA exercise over population to sustain their survival strategies. The essay identifies the dynamics of humanitarian engagement and the minimum criteria for negotiations as well as various techniques and methods to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of humanitarian engagement and negotiated access. A risk -benefit model indicates when humanitarian engagement is conducive, doubtful or unwarranted. It concludes with the recommendation that enhancement of analytical skills of humanitarian practitioners are prerequisite for any successful negotiation.

Religion and Secular Constitution: Human Rights and the Challenge of Sharia
Sam Amadi,  October 25, 2004

On September 25, 2003, a Sharia Court of Appeal in Katsina, Nigeria reversed the conviction and sentence of death passed on Amina Lawal in March 2003 by a Sharia court . The reversal has been hailed as a victory for justice by feminists, human rights activists and secularists who criticize the death sentence, as well as by Islamic clerics and Muslim fundamentalists who support the introduction of Sharia criminal law in Nigeria. Who is right? Is it the Sharia advocate or the secularist? Is the appellate verdict a victory for those who challenge the introduction of Sharia criminal law and the conviction of a rural woman for the crime of adultery? Or is it a victory for the religious leaders who insist that the Sharia system is fair and just? Again, what does the introduction of a religious criminal law by a democratically elected legislature in a constitutional democracy, and the death sentence for adultery tell about the challenges of protection human rights when religion mixes with politics?

How to Meet the First Public Obligation: Contending Discourses in Humanitarian Organizations
Volker Heins,  August 1, 2004

This paper describes and offers first steps to explain patterns of humanitarian activism and their relations with states. It focuses on the salience and viability of models of humanitarian assistance and protection in the context of a rapidly changing landscape of global and local conflicts. These models arise from different civil society traditions of delivering relief to populations caught up in war and disaster. The author starts by reconstructing the original constellation between states and the first global humanitarian actor which was the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In a second step, he looks at changing policy discourses of a number of "new" humanitarian agencies, focusing both on European-based and then on U.S. organizations. It is argued that different political cultures of humanitarian and human rights persist in the West, even if many trends cut across both organizational and national boundaries. It is also argued that in many respects Red Cross humanitarianism has outlived the attempts to radicalize it, although in some of today’s conflicts a stateless and "neutral" humanitarianism is pie in the sky.

The Right to Food and the World Food Summit: Five Years Later
Jonathan Sheff,  August 1, 2002

For much of the last 54 years since the signing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the right to food languished in relative international obscurity. Little attention was paid to the potential value of a rights-based approach to food security. This neglect was reversed dramatically in 1996, with the first World Food Summit (WFS) organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Largely by chance, the right to food found its way onto the Summit agenda. It ultimately became a central focus of international debate, the most contentious issue in negotiations leading up to the final draft of the Summit declaration

Diamonds in Peace and War: Severing the Conflict-Diamond Connection
Ingrid Tamm,  January 1, 2002

The report grew out of a conference sponsored by the Carr Center, the WPF Program, the Project on Justice in Times of Transition, and the World Peace Foundation in October 2001. Although the conflict diamond problem is but a small part of the much larger world trade in diamonds, it is highly destructive. The report places conflict diamonds within this larger context, lays out the technical issues involved, and explores all aspects of the Kimberley Process, the international negotiations by industry, NGOs, and governments that is producing a standard method of differentiating clean from "dirty diamonds."

The World Bank and Human Rights: Mission Impossible?
Gernot Brodnig,  December 7, 2001

This paper first examines the historical evolution of political and human rights issues in the World Bank\'s policies and operations. It later looks at the Bank\'s mandate against the backdrop of changing development paradigms and pursues three lines of argumentation as to why human rights are relevant to the World Bank\'s agenda. The conclusions offer some reflections on a World Bank human rights policy.

Adaptive States: The Proliferation of National Human Rights Institutions
Sonia Cardenas,  December 7, 2001

National human rights institutions (NHRIs) are government agencies that have proliferated around the world in the last decade. Why do governments create these institutions to promote and protect international norms that they may routinely violate? Why are national human rights institutions similar even across different political and social contexts? What exactly is the impact of these new institutions? The paper opens with an overview of NHRIs, and then, examines puzzles relating to the creation and impact of NHRIs in the A sia-Pacific region, focusing on the cases of the Philippines, India, and Indonesia.

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