Sustainability Science Program


Sustainable Development of the Energy Sector in China: Challenges and Options


2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012


Binz, Christian, Gabriel Chan, Claudia Doblinger, Joern Huenteler, Dongbo Shi, Tian Tang, Lei Xu, Laura Diaz Anadon. 2015. Energy Technology Innovation Policy in the Backdrop of the U.S.-China Emissions Agreement: Workshop Report. Workshop held in Tsinghua University, June 18-19, 2015. Cambridge, MA: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.

Chan, Gabriel. 2015. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy. Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of Public Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Liu, Zhu, Dabo Guan, Scott Moore, Henry Lee, Jun Su and Qiang Zhang. 2015. Climate policy: Steps to China's carbon peak. Nature. 522:279-281.

Liu, Zhu, Dabo Guan, Wei Wei, Steven J. Davis, Philippe Ciais, Jin Bai, Shushi Peng, Qiang Zhang, Klaus Hubacek, Gregg Marland, Robert J. Andres, Douglas Crawford-Brown, Jintai Lin, Hongyan Zhao, Chaopeng Hong, Thomas A. Boden, Kuishuang Feng, Glen P. Peters, Fengming Xi, Junguo Liu, Yuan Li, Yu Zhao, Ning Zeng, Kebin He. 2015. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China. Nature. 524, 335–338, doi:10.1038/nature14677.

Liu, Zhu, Kuishuang Feng, Klaus Hubacek, Sai Liang, Laura Diaz Anadon, Chao Zhang, Dabo Guan. 2015. Four system boundaries for carbon accountsEcological Modelling, DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.02.001.

Liu, Zhu, Steven J. Davis, Kuishuang Feng, Klaus Hubacek, Sai Liang, Laura Diaz Anadon, Bin Chen, Jingru Liu, Jinyue Yan, Dabo Guan. 2015. Targeted opportunities to address the climate–trade dilemma in ChinaNature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2800.

Liu, Zhu. 2015. China’s Carbon Emissions Report 2015. Sustainability Science Program Working Paper 2015-02. Sustainability Science Program and Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. [Chinese]

Okadera, Tomohiro , Yong Geng, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Huijuan Dong, Zhu Liu, Noboru Yoshida, Takaaki Kanazawa. 2015. Evaluating the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China: A regional input-output analysis approach. Energy Policy. 78:148-157, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2014.12.029.

Tang, Tian and David Popp. 2015. The learning process and technological change in wind power: Evidence from China’s CDM wind projectsJournal of Policy Analysis and Management, DOI: 10.1002/pam.21879.


Cheng, Wing Ho Tom, Gautam Kamath, Kevin Rowe, Eleanor Wood, and Taisen Yue. 2014. Low carbon Shanghai: Avoiding carbon lock-in through sustainable urbanization. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University.

Feng, Kuishuang, Klaus Hubacek, Laixiang Suna, Zhu Liu. 2014. Consumption-based CO2 accounting of China’s megacities: The case of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing. Ecological Indicators. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.04.045.

Guan, Dabo, Stephan Klasen, Klaus Hubacek, Kuishuang Feng, Zhu Liu, Kebin He, Yong Geng, Qiang Zhang. 2014. Determinants of stagnating carbon intensity in China. Nature Climate Change 4: 1017-1023, doi:10.1038/nclimate2388.

Guan, Dabo, Xin Su, Qiang Zhang, Glen P Peters, Zhu Liu, Yu Lei, and Kebin He. 2014. The socioeconomic drivers of China’s primary PM2.5 emissions. Environmental Research Letters. 9(2):024010.

Howell, Sabrina, Henry Lee, and Adam Heal. 2014. Leapfrogging or stalling out? Electric vehicles in China. HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP14-035, Cambridge, MA:  Harvard Kennedy School.

Lee, Henry, Sabrina Howell, Scott Moore, and Alice Xia. 2014. Harvard-Tsinghua Workshop on Market Mechanisms to Achieve a Low-Carbon Future for China. Summary of a Workshop at Tsinghua University, Beijing, June 3-4, 2014. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Liang, Sai, Zhu Liu, Douglas Crawford-Brown, Yafei Wang, and Ming Xu. 2014. Decoupling analysis and socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressure in China. Environmental Science and Technology, doi: 10.1021/es4042429.

Moore, Scott. 2014. Hydropolitics in China: The pursuit of localized preferences in a centralized system. The China Quarterly. 218:1-21.

Moore, Scott. 2014. Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project, Environmental Politics, DOI: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544.

Moore, Scott. 2014. Pollution Without Revolution: Why China’s environmental crisis won’t bring down the regime. Foreign Affairs, Web, July 28.

Moore, Scott. 2014. The United States of China. New York Times, March 12.

Moore, Scott. 2014. Water markets in China: Challenges, opportunities, and constraints in the development of market-based mechanisms for water resource allocation in the People’s Republic of China.  Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, Belfer Center Discussion Paper 2014-09. Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, MA.

Moore, Scott. 2014. Why China Needs new institutions to cope with looming water scarcity. Scholars Strategy Network Key Findings, Scholars Strategy Network, March.

Xu, Xiaoqi, John E. Taylor, and Anna Laura Pisello. 2014. Network synergy effect: Establishing a synergy between building network and peer network energy conservation effects. Energy and Buildings. 68:312-320.

Xu, Xiaoqi, Patricia J. Culligan, John E. Taylor. 2014. Energy Saving Alignment Strategy: Achieving energy efficiency in urban buildings by matching occupant temperature preferences with a building’s indoor thermal environment, Applied Energy. 123: 209-219.

Zhang, Chao and Laura Diaz Anadon. 2014. A multi-regional input-output analysis of domestic virtual water trade and provincial water footprint in China. Ecological Economics. 100: 159-172, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.02.006.

Zhang, Chao, Laura Diaz Anadon, Hongpin Mo, Zhongnan Zhao, and Zhu Liu. 2014. Water−carbon trade-off in China’s coal power industry. Environmental Science and Technology 48(19): 11082–11089, DOI: 10.1021/es5026454.


Choi, Hyundo and Laura Diaz Anadon. 2013. The role of the complementary sector and its relationship with network formation and government policies in emerging sectors: The case of solar photovoltaics between 2001 and 2009. Technological Forecasting and Social Change,

Guan, Dabo and Zhu Liu. 2013.  Tracing Back the Smog:  Source Analysis and Control Strategies for PM2.5  Pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. Beijing, China: China Environment Press.

Liu, Zhu, Dabo Guan, Douglas Crawford-Brown, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, and Jianguo Liu. 2013. Energy policy: A low-carbon road map for China, Nature500: 143–145, doi:10.1038/500143a.

Moore, Scott. 2013. Calming the West's water wars. Los Angeles Times. May 3.

Moore, Scott. 2013. China needs more people power to control pollution. World Politics Review. March 20.

Moore, Scott. 2013. China's massive water problem. International Herald Tribune. March 29.

Moore, Scott. 2013. Dilemmas of Regional Governance: Sub-National Territorial Politics and River Basin Management in the USA, France, China, and India. Dissertation submitted for PhD in Politics. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford.

Moore, Scott. 2013. The people are Beijing's ally in fight for cleaner air. South China Morning Post. January 23.

Moore, Scott. 2013. The Politics of Thirst: Managing Water Resources under Scarcity in the Yellow River Basin, People’s Republic of China. Discussion Paper 2013-08, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and Sustainability Science Program, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Moore, Scott. 2013. Water resource issues, politics, and policy in China. Brookings Institution Issue Brief, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Moore, Scott. 2013. What’s the most critical and under-appreciated issue in international security? World peace. Power and Policy. February 7.

Moore, Scott. Forthcoming. Hydropolitics in China: The pursuit of localized preferences in a centralized system. The China Quarterly.

The Editors [interview with Scott Moore]. 2013. Global Insider: China May move toward water-sharing agreements. World Politics Review. Feb 27.

Zhang, Chao and Laura Diaz Anadon. 2013. Life cycle water use of energy production and its environmental impacts in China, Environmental Science and Technology, 47(24):14459-14467. DOI: 10.1021/es402556x.

Zhang, Chao and Laura Diaz Anadon. Submitted. Water footprint of the energy system in China: A multi-regional input-output analysis. Environmental Science and Technology.

Zhang, Chao., M. Bruce Beck, and Jining Chen. 2013. Gauging the impact of global trade on China’s local environmental burden. Journal of Cleaner Production. 54: 270-281.

Zhi, Qiang, Jun Suc, Peng Ruc, and Laura Diaz Anadon. 2013. The evolution of China’s national energy RD&D programs: The role of scientists in science and technology decision-making. Energy Policy61: 1568–1585.


Anadon, Laura Diaz. 2012. Missions-oriented RD&D institutions in energy: A comparative analysis of China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research Policy41(10): 1742-1756.

Moore, Scott. 2012. Are we destined to fight over scarce water resources?International Security Network. October 16.