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The establishment of the permanent International Criminal Court (“ICC”) by the Rome Statute was an unprecedented development in international politics and in international law. This course will explore the origins, functioning and effectiveness of the ICC, with particular emphasis on its interactions with the UN Security Council. In only 10 years, the system established by the Rome Statute was set in motion. States parties have been financing the operations of the Court, cooperating with investigations, protecting witnesses and executing arrest warrants. Overall, the Court opened investigations in eight different situations, indicted more than 30 persons including three heads of state and concluded its first trials. In addition, without changing the UN Charter, the Rome Statute system has contributed to development of international law by the UN Security Council. The Court’s intervention was imposed in Darfur and Libya but there was no agreement to do the same in relation to Palestine or Syria. This course will first provide a brief introduction into international law on the use of force, international criminal law and to the politics of the United Nations Security Council. It will explore the emergence of doctrine of Responsibility to Protect (“R2P”) and its impact on the emerging Security Council action in these cases. The course will use a series of cases.