Research Papers

Flowgate Models, Transmission (Including Direct Access) and Transmission Rights

2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1993 | 1992-1989

The Flowgate Debate

The 2003 Blackout


Hogan, William. Path Dependent Transmission Access. 9 June 2006. Presentation, 23 pages.

European Transmission System Operators (ETSO). Transmission Risk Hedging Products: Solutions for the Market and Consequences for the TSOs. 20 April 2006. Paper, 14 pages.


California Public Utilities Commission. Capacity Markets White Paper. 25 August 2005. Paper, 53 pages.

Vogelsang, Ingo. Electricity Transmission Pricing and Performance-Based Regulation. 29 pages.
Electricity Transmission Pricing and Performance-Based Regulation Abstract. 1 page.
Regulation. CESIFO Working Paper No. 1474. May 2005. 35 pages.


Joskow, Paul. Transmission Policy in the United States. October 2004. Paper, 49 pages.

Green, Richard. Electricity Transmission Pricing: How Much Does It Cost To Get It Wrong? September 2004. Paper, 25 pages.

Hu, Xinmin, Daniel Ralph, Eric Ralph, Peter Bardsley and Michael Ferris. Electricity Generation with Looped Transmission Networks: Bidding to an ISO. 14 July 2004. Paper, 30 pages.


KEMA Consulting. Analysis and Selection of Analytical Tools to Assess National-Interest Transmission Bottlenecks. March 2003. Report, 122 pages.

Rosellon, Juan. Different Approaches Towards Electricity Transmission Expansion. Review of Network Economics, Vol. 2, Issue 3, September 2003. Article, 32 pages.

Kristiansen, Tarjei (Norweigian University of Science and Technology). Markets for Financial Transmission Rights. October 2003. Paper, 35 pages.

Baldick, Ross (to appear in IEEE Transactions in Power Systems). Variation of Distribution Factors with Loading. August 2003. Paper, 9 pages.

Singh, Harry. Markets for Transmission Rights. 15 July 2003. Presentation, 18 pages.

Transmission Project Scorecard (ESAI). Transmission Watch. July 2003. Newsletter, 6 pages.

Littlechild, Stephen. Transmission Regulation, Merchant Investment, and the Experience of SNI and Murraylink in the Australian National Electricity Market. 12 June 2003. Paper, 50 pages.

Rosellon, Juan. Pricing Electricity Transmission in Mexico. May 2003. Draft paper, 34 pages.

Heaps, Bill and Robert Reilly. Defining Service as a Foundation for Transmission Investment. 8 April 2003. Presentation, 32 pages.

Shanker, Roy. Drawing The Line For Transmission Investment. April 2003. Presentation, 24 pages.

McCoy, Paul. Grid Expansion: Who Should? Just Do It! 8 April 2003. Presentation, 9 pages.

Manz, Laura. Drawing The Line for Transmission Investment: A Framework for CoExistence. 8 April 2003. Presentation, 8 pages.

Delgado, Jose. Defining The Output Of Transmission Companies. 8 April 2003. Presentation, 9 pages.

Hogan, William. Transmission Market Design. 4 April 2003. Paper, 29 pages.

FERC. Order Accepting For Filing Proposed Tariff Changes, As Modified FTRs in the PJM Tariff. 12 March 2003. Docket No. ER03-405-000, 17 pages.

Baldick, Ross. Shift Factors in ERCOT Congestions Pricing. 5 March 2003. Paper, 44 pages.

Thorp, James and Timothy Mount ( Power Systems Engineering Research Center). Locational Pricing and Scheduling for an Integrated Energy-Reserve Market. 4 March 2003. Presentation, 34 pages.

Siddiqui, Afzal, Emily Bartholomew, Chris Marney and Shmuel Oren. On the Efficiency of the New York Independant System Operator Market for Transmission Congestion Contracts. March 2003. Paper, 45 pages.

Shanker, Roy. Affidavit on PJM Auction Revenue Rights and FTR Proposals. February 2003. FERC Docket No. ER03-406-000, 22 pages.

Mitsche, Jim. LMPs and Congestion Relief. 30 January 2003. Presentation, 13 pages.

Morey, Matthew. Performance Based Regulation for Independent Transmission Companies. 19 January 2003. Paper, 52 pages.

Woolf, Fiona. Global Transmission Expansion: Recipes for Success. Book Announcement. The book was completed while the author was a Senior Fellow at HEPG.


ISO New England. Regional Transmission Expansion Plan 2002. 7 November 2002. Paper, 210 pages.

Krapels, Edward. Back to the Future: LSEs in the Driver's Seat Again. Capacity Issues in Load Pockets. 4 November 2002. Paper, 5 pages.

Graniere, Robert. Congestion Revenue Rights: Implications for State Utility Commissions. October 2002. Paper, 36 pages.

Baldick, Ross (A Center for the Study of Energy Markets Working Paper). Variation of Distribution Factors with Loading. September 2002. 16 pages.

Brown, Ethan (NGA). Interstate Strategies for Transmission Planning and Expansion. September 2002. Paper, 32 pages.

California ISO. Economic Methodology Update of the California ISO in Docket No. 1.00-11-001 (AB970). 16 August 2002. Link to multiple documents, 1 page.

Transport Working Group (New Zealand). TWG Sub-Group's Proposed Set of Transmission Service Definitions and Measures. 29 July 2002. Paper, 23 pages.

Transpower (New Zealand). Paper for Transport Working Group. Part F: Plain English Guide and Examples. July 2002. Paper, 30 pages.

Transport Working Group (New Zealand). Commentary to the Set of Proposed Transmission Service Definitions and Measures. July 2002. Paper, 22 pages.

US Department of Energy. National Transmission Grid Study. May 2002. Paper, 108 pages.

US Department of Energy. Issues Papers - National Transmission Grid Study. May 2002. Paper, 243 pages.

Hogan, William. Financial Transmission Right Incentives: Applications Beyond Hedging. 31 May 2002. Presentation, 21 pages.

Manz, Laura. Beyond Slicing and Dicing: Incentives for Transmission Owners. 31 May 2002. Presentation, 18 pages.

Read, Grant and Arthur Young. Principles of Pricing Electricity Transmission. Ed. by A.J. Turner, Transpower New Zealand, Ltd. 1989 (posted 2002). Four papers, 454 pages (19.1 Mb download).

O'Neill, Richard, Udi Helman, Benjamin Hobbs, William Stewart, Jr. and Michael Rothkopf. A Joint Energy and Transmission Rights Auction: Proposal and Properties. February 2002. Paper, 8 pages.

Whitehead, William. PJM Regional Transmission Planning Process. 25 January 2002. Presentation, 10 pages.

Ruff, Larry. ISO/Gridcos versus Transcos: What, Why and Who Cares? 25 January 2002. Presentation, 17 pages.

Strbac, Goran. Concept of Reference Network: A Tool for Transmission Regulation and Expansion. 23 January 2002. Presentation, 24 pages.

Network Constraint Reference Group (National Electricity Market Management Company Limited). Formulation of Intra-Regional Constraints. January 2002. Paper, 46 pages.

Harvey, Scott and William Hogan. Loss Hedging Financial Transmission Rights. 15 January 2002. Paper, 37 pages.

Chandley, John and William Hogan. Independent Transmission Companies in a Regional Transmission Organization. 20 December 2001 (Revised 8 January 2002). Paper, 22 pages.


Weiss, Jürgen. Congestion Rents and Oligopolistic Competition in Electricity Networks: An Experimental Investigation. 2001.

Hartshorn, Andrew and Scott Harvey. Assessing The Short-Run Benefits From a Combined Northeast Market. 23 October 2001. Paper, 62 pages.

Russell, Tim. Flowgates: An Essential Tool For Transmission Access or an Irrelevent Abstraction. 11 July 2001. Paper, 5 pages.

Ruff, Larry. Flow-Based Congestion Management: An Intellectual and Practical Dead-End. 21 February 2001. Presentation, 25 pages.

Adamson, Seabron. Design of a Transmission Rights Exchange. 11 January 2001. Paper, 13 pages.

Smeers, Yves. Market Incompleteness in Regional Electricity Transmission. January 2001. Paper,56 pages.

Tabors, Richard. Forward Markets for Transmission that Clear at LMP: A Hybrid Proposal. January 2001. Presentation, 10 pages.


Flynn, Peter. Grid Planning and Expansion Within a Proposed RTO. 22 May 2000. Presentation.

Coxe, Raymond. Grid Planning and Expansion: Who, Where, When? 22 May 2000. Presentation.

Shanker, Roy. New Transmission Investment Policies - Implementation Issues. 22 May 2000. Presentation.

Hirst, Eric. Transmission Adequacy in a Restructuring Electricity Industry. January 2000. Presentation.


Hogan, William. An Overview: Coordinating Congestion Relief Across Multiple Regions. 16 November 1999. Presentation.

Barber, Paul. Transmission as a Business. Presentation to the Harvard Electricity Policy Group, 16 November 1999.

Cadwalader, Michael, Scott Harvey, William Hogan and Susan Pope. Coordinating Congestion Relief Across Multiple Regions. 7 October 1999. Paper, 47 pages.

Hogan, William. Getting the Prices Right in PJM a Summary: April 1998 through September 1999. 30 October 1999. 10 pages.

Fabra, Natalia. Uniform Pricing Facilitates Collusion: The Case of Electricity Market. European University Institute. October 1999. Paper, 29 pages.

Bessembinder, Hendrik and Michael Lemmon. Equilibrium Pricing and Optimal Hedging in Electricity Forward Markets. September 1999. Paper, 39 pages.

Blumstein, Carl. Pricing Electricity for Default Customers: Pass Through or Performance-Based Rates? The UCEI POWER Working Paper Series, PWP-066. September 1999. Paper, 11 pages.

Hogan, William. Market Based Transmission Investments and Competitive Electricity Markets. August 1999. Paper,
36 pages.

Joskow, Paul. Comments on RM99-2-000. 16 August 1999. FERC submission.

Edison Electric Institute. Appendices to Comments on RM99-2-000. August 1999. FERC submission.

US Department of Energy. Office of Economic, Electricity and Natural Gas Analysis, Office of Policy: Supporting Analysis for the Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act. May 1999.

Hogan, William. Electric Transmission Adequacy and Market Institutions. Presentation to Meeting of NARUC Committee on Electricity. July 1999. 36 pages.

O'Neill, Richard. Will RTOs Solve ISO, ITC, CBM, NLP, CRT, LMP, SCR, 888...? 24 May 1999. Presentation.

Gomez-Ibanez, Jose and Martin Rodriguez-Pardina. Transener (C): Expanding Transmission Capacity Draft. Kennedy School of Government Case Study. 13 May 1999.

North American Electric Reliability Council. Market Redispatch Pilot Project Summer 1999. 7 May 1999.

Entergy Services, Inc. Answer of Entergy Services, Inc. to Protests, Motions for Summary Disposition, and Motions to Hold in Abeyance. FERC Docket No. EL 99-57-000. 20 May 1999.

Hogan, William. Getting the Prices Right in PJM: Analysis and Summary: April 1998 through March 1999. The First Anniversary of Full Locational Pricing. 2 April 1999. Paper, 21 pages.

Bushnell, James. Transmission Rights and Market Power. The UCEI POWER Working Paper Series, PWP-062. April 1999. Paper, 14 pages.

FirstEnergy Operating Companies. Application of the FirstEnergy Operating Companies For Authorization To Transfer Transmission Assets to American Transmission Systems Inc. FERC Docket No. EC99-. 19 March 1999.

Hempling, Scott. Retail and Wholesale Transmission: Can Statutory Dichotomy Yield Policy Unification? 19 March 1999. Presentation.

Stalon, Charles. On the Desirability of More Price Elasticity in Market Demand Curves. 19 March 1999. Presentation.

Patton, Kathryn. Power Marketer View. What's Wrong, and How Do We Fix It? 19 March 1999. Presentation.

Landgren, Dale. Retail and Wholesale Transmission Markets: Can They Be Unified? Defining the Issues and Ramifications. 19 March 1999. Presentation.

Brown, Ashley and Susan Kaplan. Retail and Wholesale Transmission Pricing: A Troublesome Divergence. 19 March 1999. Presentation.


Gordon, Fred, Joe Chaisson and Dave Andrus. Helping Distributed Resources Happen: A Blueprint for Regulators, Advocates and Distribution Companies. Final Report for The Energy Foundation. 21 December 1998.

Baldick, Ross. Coordination by Tie-Line Decomposition. 20 November 1998. Presentation.

Rajamaran, Rajesh and Fernando Alvarado. Inefficiencies of NERC's Transmission Loading Relief Procedures.
The Electricity Journal.
October 1998.

Glavitsch, Hans and Fernando Alvarado. Management of Multiple Congested Conditions in Unbundled Operation of a Power System. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 13, No. 3. October 1998.

Angle, Stephen and George Cannon, Jr. Independent Transmission Companies: The For-Profit ISO Alternative in the Quest for Competitive Electric Markets. 1998.

Hogan, William. Market Mechanisms and Decomposition for Coordination of Transmission Line Loading Relief Across Multiple Regions. 20 November 1998. Presentation, 26 pages.

Cadwalader, Michael, Scott Harvey, William Hogan and Susan Pope. Market Coordination of Transmission Loading Relief Across Multiple Regions. 1 December 1998. Paper, 37 pages.

Harvey, Scott. Locational Pricing. 7 October 1998.

Tabors, Caramanis and Associates. Analysis of the Midwestern Electricity Price Spikes of Late June 1998. September 1998.

Federal Trade Commission. Docket to Consider Competition in the Provision of Retail Electric Service. Docket No. 96-UA-389. 28 August 1998.

Hogan, William. Competitive Electricity Markets and Transmission Line Loading Relief. 10-11 September 1998.

Deng, Shijie and Shmuel Oren. Priority Network Access Pricing for Electric Power. 10 June 1998.

Gent, Mike. A New Structure for NERC. 22 May 1998. Presentation.

Englander, Scott. LMP in PJM: Is It Working Yet? 14 April 1998.

Green, Richard. Electricity Transmission Pricing: How Much Does It Cost to Get It Wrong? April 1998.

Hogan, William. Transmission Investment and Competitive Electricity Markets. April 1998. Paper, 37 pages.

Stoft, Steven. Gaming Intra-Zonal Congestion in California. 6 March 1998.

PUCO. Petition of the State Public Utilities or Public Service Commissions Indicated Herein for Technical Conference or Regional Hearing. 27 February 1998.


Turvey, Ralph and Brian Cory. Inefficiencies in Electricity Pricing. December 1997.

Klein, Abram. (How) Should "Capacity" Be Priced in a Competitive Electricity Market? November 1997.

Barber, Paul. Electric Power Transmission. Presentation to the Harvard Electricity Policy Group, 25 September 1997.

Hogan, William. Nodes and Zones in Electricity Markets: Seeking Simplified Congestion Pricing. 9 September 1997.

Green, Richard. Electricity Transmission Pricing: An International Comparison. July 1997.

McGuire, Bart. Optimal Power Flow, Node Prices, and Transmission Tolls in a Number of Instructive Examples. July 1997. Paper, 45 pages.

Kim, Balho and Ross Baldick. Coarse-Grained Distributed Optimal Power Flow. May 1997.

Lenard, Thomas. Creating Competitive Markets in Electric Energy. 10 April 1997. Presentation.

Coxe, Raymond. New Paradigms for Siting Transmission in Competitive Electricity Markets. 10 April 1997. Presentation.

Mead, David. The Value of Options and Obligations in Transmission Expansion. 10 April 1997. Presentation.

Stoft, Steven. Five Things You Should Know About Grid Investment. 10 April 1997. Presentation.

Borenstein, Severin, James Bushnell, Edward Kahn and Steven Stoft. The Competitive Effects of Transmission Capacity in a Deregulated Electricity Industry. April 1997.

Harvey, Scott, William Hogan and Susan Pope. Transmission Capacity Reservations and Transmission Congestion Contracts. 8 March 1997. Paper, 105 pages.

Backerman, Steven, Stephen Rassenti and Vernon Smith. Efficiency and Income Shares in High Demand Energy Resources: Who Receives the Congestion Rents When a Line is Constrained? The University of Arizona. 21 January 1997.


Woolf, Fiona. The Unbundling and Rebundling of Transmission and Market Related Functions. The Electricity Journal. December 1996.

Walton, Steven and Richard Tabors. Zonal Transmission Pricing: Methodology and Preliminary Results from the WSCC. The Electricity Journal. November 1996.

Deb, Rjat, Richard Albert and Lie-Long Hsue. Modeling Competitive Energy Markets in California: Analysis of Restructuring. 3 October 1996.

Hogan, William. Testimony Before FERC on Capacity Reservation Open Access Transmission Tariffs. 20 September 1996.

Hunt, Sally and Graham Shuttleworth. Unlocking the Grid. IEEE Spectrum. July 1996.

Hogan, William. Transmission Capacity Reservations and Transmission Congestion Contracts Draft. 13-14 June 1996.

Hogan, William. Reshaping the Electricity Industry: Locational Pricing and Transmission Congestion Contracts Draft. 23 April 1996.

Nadeau, Clement. Niagara Mohawk Spot Market Structure. 21 March 1996. Presentation.


Meehan, Robert. A Synopsis of the Duquesne Light Company/GPU Proposed 500 kV Transmission Line Proceeding Draft. 26-27 October 1995.

Hogan, William. Transmission Congestion Contracts: Defining Available Transmission Capacity. 26-27 October 1995. Presentation.

Roche, Michael. Challenge of Expanding Transmission: A Recent Case Study Draft. 27 October 1995.

Baldick, Ross and Edward Kahn. Contract Paths, Phase-Shifters, and Efficient Electricity Trade. POWER Working Paper PWP-035. October 1995.

Stoft, Steven. Transmission Investment Draft. 27 September 1995. Presentation.

Texas PUC. Proposal for Achieving Transmission Access. 6 September 1995.

Hogan, William. Electricity Transmission Policy and Promoting Wholesale Competition. Initial Response to FERC Open Access NOPR, RM95-8-000. 7 August 1995.

Papalexopoulos, Alex. Challenges to an On-Line OPF Implementation Draft. August 1995.

California Energy Commission. Comments in re FERC RM 95-9-000. 5 July 1995.

Hogan, William. Electricity Transmission and Emerging Competition. Public Utilities Fortnightly. 1 July 1995.

TransPower New Zealand Limited. An Introduction to Nodal Pricing. June 1995.

Hogan, William. Electricity Transmission and Emerging Competition. 23-24 May 1995. Paper, 84 pages.

Brown, Ashley. A Concept Outline: Elements of a Grand Regulatory Compact for Seamless Pricing of Wires Services. Draft. 17 May 1995.

Bushnell, James and Steven Stoft. Transmission and Generation Investment in a Competitive Electric Power Industry. For the California Energy Commission, Interagency Agreement 700-93-003. POWER Working Paper PWP-030. May 1995.

Gray, Charles. Memorandum and Paper: Options for Jurisdiction over Transmission Facility Siting. January 1995.


Glynn, Robert, Jr. Offering Customers Direct Access: Using Choice to Stimulate Competition. The Electricity Journal 7(10), 52-57. December 1994.

Hogan, William. Coordination for Competition in the Electricity Market. 27-28 October 1994. Paper, 106 pages.

Hogan, William. Real Customer Choice Through Efficient Direct Access Draft. 29-30 September 1994. Presentation.

Kuga, Roy. Direct Access: PG&E's Proposal to Begin Implementation Draft. 23 September 1994. Presentation.

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. Direct Access: The First Three Years. September 1994.

Hogan, William. Retail Wheeling Fiction vs. Efficient Direct Access Fact Draft. 25 July 1994. Presentation.

Hogan, William. Designing an Efficient, Competitive Electricity Transmission Pricing and Access Market Model Draft. 24 June 1994. Presentation.

Hogan, William. Efficient Pricing and Transmission Rights in Support of a Competitive Electricity Market (Comments for Technical Conference on Responses to the Inquiry Concerning the Commission's Pricing Policy for Transmission Services Provided by Public Utilities Under the Federal Power Act). FERC Docket No. RM93-19-000. 15 April 1994.


Henderson, J. Stephen. Market Structure and Transmission Puzzles Draft. 30 November 1993.

Putnam, Hayes and Bartlett, Inc. Transmission Pricing for a Competitive Future: FERC Docket No. RM93-19-000.
8 November 1993.

Gray, Charles and Scott Hempling. Options for Jurisdiction Over Transmission Facility Siting and Transmission Cost Recovery: Does the Split Jurisdiction Between FERC and States Create Uncertainty or Inefficiency? Draft. November 1993. Two-Part Memo.

Hogan, William. Transmission Pricing in Support of a Competitive Electricity Market. November 1993.

Rosegrant, Susan, with Tom Steinbach (Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University). The California-Oregon Transmission Project: The Quest for Transmission Access. October 1993. Case Study.

Spiewak, Scott. Rate Swap, Anyone? Fortnightly 16-20. 1 October 1993.

Trabandt, Charles. Wheeling and Dealing: Electric Transmission in the 1990's. 27-28 May 1993.

Hogan, William. Electric Transmission: A New Model for Old Principles. The Electricity Journal. March 1993.

Hogan, William. Markets in Real Electric Networks Require Reactive Prices. The Energy Journal. 1993.


NARUC Electricity Committee. NARUC Proposal to the FERC for Consultative Process on Electricity Transmission Issues. November 1992.

Brown, Ashley and Terrence Barnich. "Transmission and Ratebase: A Match Not Made in Heaven." Public Utilities Fortnightly, 1 June 1991.

Read, Grant and Arthur Young. Principles of Transmission Pricing. Ed. by A. J. Turner, Transpower New Zealand, Ltd., 1989 (posted 2002). Four papers, 454 pages (19.1 Mb download).


Capacity Markets

Climate Change


Competitive Market Models and Transitions to Competition

Electric Storage

Demand Response

Demand Side Management/Conservation

Distributed Generation

EPAct and Predictions for the Future

FERC Rulings and Reports

Financial Markets

Financial Transmission Rights

Investment Incentives/Risk Allocation

Lessons from Abroad

Lessons from Other US Industries


Market Liquidity

Market "Manipulation"

Merchant Transmission

Mergers, Market Power and Anti-Trust

National Energy Policy

Natural Gas

Nuclear Power

PEV (Plug-in Electric Vehicles)

Public Power

Regional Transmission Organizations

Regulation, Governance and Judicial Review


Renewable Energy

Research and Development

Resource Adequacy

Retail Pricing

Scarcity Pricing


Smart Grid

Standard Market Design and Demand-Side Activities

State and Regional Activities


Stranded Benefits (Including Public Policy, Environment, DSM, IRP)

Stranded Investments, Assets, Costs (Including the Nuclear Question)

Transmission Cost Allocation

Technology Incentives

Transmission Investment

Transmission Planning

Wholesale and Retail Competition

Miscellaneous (Including Electricity Futures, Economic Principles, Financial Reform)