RESEARCH LIBRARY
Research Papers

Wholesale and Retail Competition

2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1993 | 1992

2013

21st Century Power Partnership. "Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems." Produced under the guidance of the Department of Energy and the Clean Energy Ministerial by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under Interagency Agreement S- OES - 12 - IA - 0010 and Task Number WFH1.2010. October 7, 2013.

Florio, Michel. "Growing need for flexibility starting 2015." Harvard Electricity Policy Group 70th Plenary Session, Dana Point, CA, March 7-8, 2013. 1 page.

Neenan, Bernie. "Why Direct Customer Participation in Wholesale Markets is Counter Productive." Harvard Electricity Policy Group 70th Plenary Session, Dana Point, CA, March 7-8, 2013. 12 pages.

Nieto, Amparo. "Connecting Wholesale and Retail Pricing: A Look at Market and Policy Design Decisions." Harvard Electricity Policy Group 70th Plenary Session, Dana Point, CA, March 7-8, 2013. 7 pages.

Yoshimura, Henry. "Wholesale/Retail Pricing: Can the Disconnected Realities be Bridged?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 70th Plenary Session, Dana Point, CA, March 7-8, 2013. 34 pages.

Shelk, John, and Glen Thomas. "Right Question, Wrong Answer: How Consumers Are Benefitting, and Will Continue to Benefit, from Competitive Electricity Markets." ElectricityPolicy.com, March 2013.

Schmalensee, Richard. "Down a Long and Winding Road - How Far?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 10 pages.

Moler, Elizabeth. "Happy Anniversary HEPG: Where Have We Been? Where Are We Going?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 5 pages.

Flaim, Theresa. "Twenty Years of Electricity Market Reform: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 15 pages.

Massey, William. "Twenty Years of Market Reformation: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?" Harvard Electricity Policy Group 72nd Plenary Session, September 26, 2013. 9 pages.

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2012

Caplan, Elise, and Stephen Brobeck. "Have Restructured Wholesale Electricity Markets Benefitted Consumers?" ElectricityPolicy.com, December 2012.

Shelk, John, and Glen Thomas. "Right Question, Wrong Answer: How Consumers Are Benefitting, and Will Continue to Benefit, from Competitive Electricity Markets." ElectricityPolicy.com, March 2013.

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2011

American Public Power Association. "APPA’s Competitive Market Plan: A Roadmap for Reforming Wholesale Electricity Markets. 2011 Update." June, 2011.

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2009

California ISO Launches New & Improved Markets. News release, April 1, 2009.

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2008

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2007

American Public Power Association. Power Supply Procurement in Retail Choice States. June 2007. Paper, 35 pages.

Binz, Ron. Retail Procurement: In Search of No Fault Default Service. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Eighth Plenary Session. October, 2007. 15 pages.

Brockway, Nancy. Delaware's Electricity Future: Re-Regulation Options and Impacts. May, 2007. Paper, 66 pages.

Brown, Ashley. Retail Procurement: Default Service vs. Monopoly Service Considerations. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Eighth Plenary Session. October, 2007. 10 pages.

Bushnell, James. Making the Call: Evaluating the Success or Failure of US Electricity Restructuring. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 12 pages.

Bushnell, James. The Implementation of California AB 32 and its Impact on Wholesale Electricity Markets. August, 2007. Paper, 20 pages.

Harvey, Scott. Analysis of the Impact of Coordinated Electricity Markets on Consumer Electricity Charges. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 24 pages.

Harvey, Scott, Bruce McConihe and Susan Pope. Analysis of the Impact of Coordinated Electricity Markets on Consumer Electricity Charges. 18 June 2007. Paper, 72 pages.

Harvill, Terry. Entry, Concentration, and Market Efficiency: A Simulation of the PJM Energy Market. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 60 pages.

Hochstetter, Sandra. The Changing Landscape for Retail Procurement: from Restructured to Re-Regulated, and from Regulated to Government-Controlled. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Eighth Plenary Session. October, 2007. 9 pages.

Hogan, William and Susan Pope. United States of America Before the Federal Regulatory Commission: Comments on Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets. September 17, 2007. Paper, 30 pages.

LaCasse, Chantale. Procurement for Default Service In Times of Rising Costs. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Eighth Plenary Session. October, 2007. 7 pages.

Littlechild, Stephen. Municipal Aggregation and Retail Competition in the Ohio Energy Sector. August, 2007. Paper, 34 pages.

Rose, Kenneth. The Impact of Competition on Electricity Prices: Can We Discern a Pattern? Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Ninth Plenary Session. December, 2007. 14 pages.

Wolfe, Samuel. New Jersey Basic Generation Service Auction. Presentation to the HEPG Forty-Eighth Plenary Session. October, 2007. 7 pages.

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2006

Brown, Ashley. Load Serving Entities and Hedging: Critical Regulatory Issues. 21 September 2006. Presentation,
7 pages.

Connolly, Paul. To Hedge or Not To Hedge. 21 September 2006. Presentation, 42 pages.

DC Energy. Effects of 4/25/06 FERC RSG Order on Convergence of MISO Markets. 6 October 2006. Paper, 45 pages.

Evans, Lewis, Kevin Counsell, Graeme Guthrie and Steen Videbeck. Options Provided by Storage Can Explain High Electricity Prices. 12 June 2006. Paper, 31 pages.

Harvey, Scott, Bruce McConihe and Susan Pope. Analysis of the Impact of Coordinated Electricity Markets on Consumer Electricity Charges. 20 November 2006. Paper, 49 pages.

Hemmingway, Roy. Independence of Regulatory Decisions in New Zealand. 30 November 2006. Presentation, 8 pages.

Hogan, William. Reliability and Scarcity Pricing: Operating Reserve Demand Curves. 2 March 2006. Presentation,
31 pages.

Joskow, Paul. Incentive Regulation in Theory and Practice: Electricity Distribution and Transmission Networks.
21 January 2006. Paper, 63 pages.

Jurewitz, John. Regulation of Utility Power Procurement and Hedging Activities. 21 September 2006. Presentation,
14 pages.

Kwoka, John. Restructuring the U.S. Electric Power Sector: A Review of Recent Studies. November 2006 (with addendum 7 December 2006). Report, 92 pages.

Migden-Ostrander, Janine.  Wholesale and Retail Electricity Market Models: Will They Mesh Well or Cancel Each Other Out?1 June 2006. Presentation, 17 pages.

National Grid. Transmission and Wind Energy: Capturing the Prevailing Winds for the Benefit of Customers. September 2006. Paper, 26 pages.

New York State Department of Public Service. Staff Report on the State of Competitive Energy Markets: Progress To Date and Future Opportunities. 2 March 2006. Report, 64 pages.

O'Connor, David. A New Role For States In The Administration of Regional Electricity Markets2 June 2006. Presentation, 15 pages.

O'Neill, Richard. Complete Markets Under EPAct: No Market Participant or Product Left Behind. 2 March 2006. Presentation, 40 pages.

Reese, John. Wholesale and Retail Electricity Market Models: Will They Mesh Well or Cancel Each Other Out?1 June 2006. Presentation, 21 pages.

Rose, Kenneth. Regulation and Hedging for Load Serving Entities. 21 September 2006. Presentation, 9 pages.

Ruff, Larry. The Missing Markets: Where They Are (Not) and What (If Anything) To Do About It. 2 March 2006. Presentation, 13 pages.

Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser. Restructuring, Ownership and Efficiency: The Case of Labor in Electricity Generation. November 2006. Working paper, 43 pages.

Schnitzer, Michael. Wholesale and Retail Electricity Market Models: Will They Mesh Well or Cancel Each Other Out?
1 June 2006. Presentation, 5 pages.

Sotkiewicz, Paul. Nodal Pricing and MW-mile Methods for Distribution: Have We Uncovered Missing Markets or Elements for Wholesale Power Markets? 2 March 2006. Presentation, 25 pages.

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2005

Edison Electric Institute. Framework for the Continuing Development of a Competitive Wholesale Market for the Benefit of Consumers. 7 January 2005. Paper, 5 pages.

Holmberg, Pär. Comparing Supply Function Equilibria of Pay-as-Bid and Uniform-Price Auctions. Uppsala University Working Paper 2005:17. May 2005. 29 pp.

Holmberg, Pär. Asymmetric Supply Function Equilibrium with Constant Marginal Costs. Uppsala University Working Paper 2005:16. April 2005. 31 pp.

Holmberg, Pär. Numerical Calculation of an Asymmetric Supply Function Equilibrium with Capacity Constraints. Uppsala University Working Paper 2005:12. March 2005. 22 pages.

Joskow, Paul and Jean Tirole. Retail Electricity Competition. 11 April 2005. Paper, 23 pages.

Joskow, Paul. Patterns of Transmission Investment. 15 March 2005. Paper, 67 pages.

Potomac Economics, Ltd. 2004 State of the Market Report for the ERCOT Wholesale Electricity Markets. Report, July 2005. 206 pp.

Sotkiewicz, Paul and Jesus Vignolo. Nodal Pricing for Distribution Networks: Efficient Pricing for Efficiency Enhancing Distributed Generation. August 2005. Working Paper, 3 pages.

Sotkiewicz, Paul and Jesus Vignolo. Allocation of Fixed Costs in Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation. April 2005. Working Paper, 15 pages.

Ward, Steve. Retail Competition: Restructuring in Maine. 22 September 2005. Presentation, 19 pages.

2004

American Public Power Association. Restructuring at the Crossroads. December 2004. Publication, 36 pages.

Belmont [MA] Electricity Supply Study Committee (La Capra Associates). Retail Choice Study. Issues and Options for Electric Generation Service: A Report for Public Comment. 2 June 2004. 81 pages.

Bessembinder, Hendrik and Michael Lemmon. Gains From Trade Under Uncertainty: The Case of Electric Power Markets. June 2004. Paper, 41 pages.

Biedrzycki, Carol. Retail Competition in Texas Electricity Markets: Is It Working? How Can We Tell? 3 December 2004. Presentation. 20 pages.

Desmond, Joseph. Retail Competition: Should Markets Be Bifurcated Between Core and Non-Core Customers?
7 October 2004. Presentation. 22 pages.

Flynn, William. Retail Competition: Should Markets Be Bifurcated Between Core and Non-Core Customers?
7 October 2004. Paper, 7 pages.

Gordon, Kenneth and Wayne Olson. Retail Cost Recovery and Rate Design in a Restructured Environment. December 2004. 43 pages.

Holmberg, Pär. Unique Supply Function Equilibrium with Capacity Constraints. Uppsala University Working Paper 2004:20. November 2004. 35 pages.

Malloy, Ken. Is Energy Competition Like Pornography? Will We Know Success When We See It? 3 December 2004. Presentation. 38 pages.

Markiewicz, Kira, Nancy Rose and Catherine Wolfram. Does Competition Reduce Costs? Assessing the Impact of Regulatory Restructuring on US Electric Generation Efficiency. November 2004. Working paper no. 04-37 (MIT Department of Economics). 57 pages.

Migden-Ostrander, Janine. Retail Competition Is for Everyone. 7 October 2004. Presentation. 23 pages.

National Association of State PIRGs. Toward a Consumer-Oriented Electric System: Assuring Affordability, Reliability, Accountability and Balance After a Decade of Restructuring. June 2004. 140 pages.

Smitherman, Barry. Retail Competition in Texas Electricity Markets: Is It Working? How Can We Tell? 3 December 2004. Presentation. 13 pages.

Showalter, Marilyn. Retail Competition: Should Markets Be Bifurcated Between Core and Non-Core Customers?
7 October 2004. Presentation. 8 pages.

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2003

Bujimalla, Venkata (NRRI). Review of Standard Offer Service/Rate Freezes in the US as of September 2003. September 2003. Table, 4 pages.

Coyne, James and Prescott Hartshorne (Lexecon). Winners and Losers in Restructuring: Assessing Electric and Gas Company Financial Performance. August 2003. Paper, 11 pages.

Cullen Hitt, Carrie Setting the Standard for POLR. 25 September 2003. Presentation, 11 pages.

Energy Price Indices White Paper. 27 February 2003. Paper, 27 pages. Data Submission, Usage, and Confidentiality Agreement. 27 February 2003. Paper, 17 pages. Committee of Chief Risk Officers. Website.

Joskow, Paul. The Difficult Transition to Competitive Electricity Markets in the US. July 2003. Paper, 90 pages.

Rose, Kenneth (Institute of Public Utilities, Michigan State University). 2003 Performance Review of Electric Power Markets. 29 August 2003. Report, 138 pages.

Schriber, Alan. The Standard Service Offer. 25 September 2003. Presentation, 7 pages.

Steinhurst, William, et. al. (Synapse Energy Economics, Inc.). [Connecticut] Office of Consumer Counsel Comments on Alternative Transitional Standard Offers. 20 October 2003. Paper, 58 pages.

Vasington, Paul. Setting the Standard for Standard Offers. 25 September 2003. Presentation, 22 pages.

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2002

Alexander, Barbara (NCAT). The Transition to Retail Competition in Energy Markets: How Have Residential Consumers Fared? Part One: An Analysis of Residential Energy Markets in Georgia, Massachusetts, Ohio, New York and Texas. September 2002. Paper, 43 pages.

Anderson, John. Retail Competition: A Failed Experiment, or an Essential Reform Just Beginning? 27 September 2002. Presentation, 28 pages.

Brown, Matthew (NCAT). The Transition to Retail Competition in Energy Markets: How Have Residential Consumers Fared? Part Two: An Analysis of Opt-out Aggregation in Massachusetts and Ohio. September 2002. Paper, 10 pages.

Cooper, Mark (Consumer Federation of America). All Pain, No Gain: Restructuring and Deregulation in the Interstate Electricity Market. September 2002. Summary, 43 pages. 

Cullen Hitt, Carrie. Retail Markets: A Failed Experiment, or an Essential Reform Just Beginning? 27 September 2002. Presentation, 10 pages.

Fabra, Natalia, Nils-Hendrik von der Fehr and David Harbord. Designing Electricity Auctions: Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey. 9 November 2002. Paper, 37 pages.  

Institut d'Economie Industrielle (France). Papers from "Wholesale Markets for Electricity" Conference. 22-23 November 2002. Website.

National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT).  Introduction and Summary - The Transition to Retail Competition in Energy Markets: How Have Residential Consumers Fared? September 2002. Summary, 3 pages.

Oppenheim, Jerrold. Assuring Electricity Service for all Residential Customers after Electricity Industry Restructuring. 10 November 2001. Paper, 32 pages.

Public Utility Commission of Texas. A Primer on Wholesale Market Design. 1 November 2002. Paper, 53 pages.

Rose, Kenneth and Venkata Bujimalla. 2002 Review of Electric Power Markets 30 August 2002. Paper, 116 pages.

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2001

Electric Power Supply Association. Assessing the "Good Ol' Days" of Cost-Plus Regulation: A Report on Trends in Electricity Prices During the Emerging Competitive Regime from 1980–1999, Plus a Brief Look at Risk Managament Then and in the Future. 23 July 2001. Paper, 29 pages. Appendix A-L: Utility by Utility Data on Inflation Adjusted Prices/KwH 21 May 2001. Appendix Report, 170 pages. Appendix M-Z: Utility by Utility Data on Inflation Adjusted Prices/KwH 21 May 2001. Appendix Report, 171 pages.

Electric Power Supply Association. 2000 Data Update: Assessing the "Good Ol' Days" of Cost-Plus Regulation. 3 April 2002. Paper, 17 pages. Appendix: Utility by Utility Data on Inflation Adjusted Prices/KwH 3 April 2002. Appendix Report, 336 pages.

Cavanagh, Ralph. California Overcomes an Electricity Crisis. 2 November 2001. Paper/Analysis, 2 pages.

Federal Trade Commission, Staff. Competition and Consumer Protection Perspectives on Electric Power Regulatory Reform: Focus on Retail Competition. September 2001. Report, 92 Pages. Appendix A - Detailed State by State Analysis 125 pages. Appendix B - Comments and Abbreviations 3 pages.

Flaim, Theresa. Are Retail Markets Working? — Part Deux. 1 February 2001. Presentation, 18 pages.

Hirst, Eric. Real-Time Balancing Operations and Markets: Key to Competitive Wholesale Electricity Markets. April 2001. Paper, 56 pages.

O'Connor, David. From Rate Caps to Market Prices: The Path to Retail Competition. 2 January 2001. Presentation,
6 pages.  

2000

Clarke, Linda J. PJM's Two-Settlement System. 21 September 2000. Presentation, 11 pages.

Esposito, Peter. Retail: What's Wrong, How Do We Fix it, and Should We? 8 December 2000. Presentation, 10 pages. 

Flaim, Theresa. Retail Competition in the US: Is It Working? 23 May 2000. Presentation.

Hirst, Eric and Brendan Kirby. Bulk-Power Basics: Reliability and Commerce. 12 March 2000. Paper, 40 pages.

Hogan, William, John Chandley and Scott Harvey. Electricity Market Reform in California. 22 November 2000. Paper, 35 pages.

Joskow, Paul. Retail Electricity Markets. 23 May 2000. Presentation.

Joskow, Paul L. Why Do We Need Electricity Retailers? Or Can You Get It Cheaper Wholesale? 13 February 2000. Paper, 59 pages.

Jurewitz, John. Fear and Loathing on the California Grid 8. December 2000. Presentation. 

McNeil, William. Status of Retail Markets in Illinois. 8 December 2000. Presentation, 9 pages. 

O'Connor, Philip. Competitive Retail Electricity: The Other E-Commerce. 23 May 2000. Presentation.

Popowsky, Sonny. State of the Retail Markets. 8 December 2000. Presentation. 

Reed, William. Benefits of Retail Competition: I Can Get it for You Wholesale, but Retail is Better. September, 2000. Presentation, 51 pages.

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1999

Amati, Martin. Markets in ISO New England, Summer of 1999. 16 November 1999. Presentation.

Flaim, Theresa. Default Service, Issues and Options. 25 May 1999. Presentation. 

Harrington, Cheryl. Default Service. 25 May 1999.  Presentation. 

Hayden, Jolly. The Wholesale Market in Practice. 16 November 1999. Presentation.

Hilke, John. Information Disclosure and Support of Competitive Electric Markets. 23 September 1999. Presentation.

Kates-Garnick, Barbara. Report from the Front: Operating in the Retail Market Place. 25 January 1999.  

O'Neill, Richard. Information Disclosure and Support of Competitive Electric Markets. 23 September 1999. Presentation.

Schuster, Tony. Robust Energy Markets: A Transporter's View. 16 November 1999.  Presentation.

Santa, Donald. Information Disclosure and Support of Competitive Electric Markets: Why Enough is Never Enough.
23 September 1999. Presentation.

Shapiro, Richard. Default Service. 25 May 1999.  Presentation. 

Thilly, Roy. The Wholesale Market in Practice. 16 November 1999.  Presentation.

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1998

Ando, Amy and Karen Palmer. Getting on the Map: The Political Economy of State-Level Electricity Restructuring. 2 March 1998.

Baselice and Associates, Inc. A Tabulation of Survey Results Among Adults in Pennsylvania. December 1998.

Jones, Douglas. Regulating Affiliate Transactions in Electric Restructuring: How and How Much. 29 January 1998. Presentation. 

Ruff, Larry. Competition in Electricity: Where Do We Go from Here? 13 October 1998.

Pierce, Richard. Conceptual Issues Raised by the PECO/ENRON Dispute Draft. January 1998.  

1997

Bailey, Elizabeth. The Geographic Expanse of the Market for Wholesale Electricity in the Western United States.  October 14, 1997.

Bohi, Douglas. Wholesale vs. Retail Competition in Electricity. 9 January 1997. Presentation.

Reed, William. Preparing for the Competitive Retail Market. 26 September 1997. Presentation.

Reed, William. Enabling a Competitive Energy Market. 9 January 1997. Presentation.

1996

Bohi, Douglas and Karen Palmer. The Efficiency of Wholesale vs. Retail Competition in Electricity. The Electricity Journal. October 1996.

Competitive Power Coalition of New England, Inc. A Blueprint for a Competitive Electricity Supply System in New England. Draft. 5 January 1996.  

Hogan, William, Brendan Ring and Grant Read. Using Mathematical Programming for Electricity Spot Pricing. 6 May 1996. 

Klein, Michael (World Bank). Private Sector Development Department: Competition in Network Industries. April 1996.

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1995

Alexander, Owens. Retail Power Sales. 27 January 1995.

Brown, Ashley. Honey, I Shrunk The Franchise! The Electricity Journal. March 1995.

Kahn, Edward and Steven Stoft. Organization of Bulk Power Markets: A Concept Paper. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory LBL-37508. December 1995. 

Hogan, William W. A Wholesale Pool Spot Market Must Be Administered by the Independent System Operator: Avoiding the Separation Fallacy. The Electricity Journal. December 1995.

Hoecker, James. Bulk Power Market Issues Now Before FERC.  Draft. 16 October 1995. Excerpt.

Nadeau, Clement. Wholesale Power Pools. 26 January 1995.  

Paynter, Thomas. Spot Market Pricing of Electric GenerationDraft. 24 May 1995.

Paynter, Thomas. Comments on Spot Pricing with Start-Up Costs. Draft. undated.

Vince, Clinton and Cathy Fogel. Franchise Competition. The Electricity Journal. May 1995. 

1994

Black, Bernard. A Proposal for Implementing Retail Competition in the Electricity Industry. The Electricity Journal. October, 1994.

Cohen, Armond, and Steven Kihm. The Political Economy of Retail Wheeling, or How to Not Re-Fight the Last War. The Electricity Journal. April 1994.

Zausner, Eric. Retail Services: Opportunities UnlimitedDraft. 28 October 1994. Presentation.  

1993

Anderson, John. The Competitive Sourcing of Retail Electric Power: An Idea Whose Time Has (Finally) Come. Draft. September, 1993.

Black, Bernard and Richard Pierce. The Choice Between Markets and Central Planning in Regulating the US Electricity IndustryDraft. June 1993.  

Cavanagh, Ralph. The Great "Retail Wheeling" Illusion - and More Productive Energy Futures. Draft. September 1993.

Varley, Pamela. Fighting for Customers: Atlantic Bluffs Confront a Competitive Challenge. October 1993. Case Study.

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1992

Edison Electric Institute. The Case Against Retail Wheeling: A Response to Advocates of Retail Wheeling. Transmission Issues Monograph No. 5. July 1992.

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Regulation, Governance and Judicial Review

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Wholesale and Retail Competition

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