h o m e i d e a s p h. d   t r a i n i n g p e o p l e s e m i n a r s u m m e r e u r o p e a n  n e t w o r k  o n  i n e q u a l i t y n e w s
  H o m e





Faculty and staff



Devah Pager
Director, AY 2014-2015

Amitabh Chandra
David T. Ellwood

Christopher Jencks
Jeffrey B. Liebman
William Julius Wilson


Lawrence F. Katz

Jennifer Hochschild
Torben Iversen
Theda Skocpol

Michèle Lamont
Director of the European Network on Inequality
Bruce Western
Christopher Winship



Richard B. Freeman
Roland G. Fryer

Edward L. Glaeser
Claudia Goldin

Ryan D. Enos
Claudine Gay
Peter A. Hall
Paul E. Peterson
Robert D. Putnam

Jason Beckfield
Bart Bonikowski
Mary C. Brinton
Matthew Desmond
Filiz Garip
Alexandra Killewald
Orlando Patterson
Robert J. Sampson
Mary C. Waters
Martin Whyte


Mary Jo Bane
George J. Borjas

Amitabh Chandra
Ronald F. Ferguson
Archon Fung
Joshua S. Goodman
Alexander Keyssar
Jane J. Mansbridge

Monica Singhal
Julie Boatright Wilson

David J. Deming

Thomas J. Kane
Jal Mehta
Richard J. Murnane
Martin West


Pamela L. Metz
Associate Director





Mary Jo BaneMary Jo Bane
Thornton Bradshaw Professor of Public Policy and Management

Mary Jo Bane is Thornton Bradshaw Professor of Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. From 1993 to 1996 she was Assistant Secretary for Children and Families at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. From 1992 to 1993 she was Commissioner of the New York State Department of Social Services, where she previously served as Executive Deputy Commissioner from 1984 to 1986. From 1987 to 1992, at the Kennedy School, she was Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy and Director of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. From 2006-2011, she served as the Academic Dean of the Harvard Kennedy School. She is the author of a number of books and articles on poverty, welfare, families, and the role of churches in civic life. She is currently doing research on poverty in the United States and international context. She lives in Dorchester, Massachusetts, with her husband Kenneth Winston and enjoys hiking, gardening, and reading novels.
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Jason BeckfieldJason Beckfield
Professor of Sociology

Jason Beckfield, Professor of Sociology, studies inequality and social policy in the context of globalization and regional integration. His current work investigates the impact of European integration on economic inequality and the welfare state, the evolution of the network structure of international organizations, and the social determinants of health inequalities.
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Bart BonikowskiBart Bonikowski
Assistant Professor of Sociology

Bart Bonikowski received his Ph.D. in Sociology from Princeton University in 2011. He studies ways in which political institutions reflect and shape the cultural models employed by individuals in their daily lives and how these models vary within and between major units of social organization, such as nation-states, racial groups, and socioeconomic classes. His current work in this area examines the sources and political consequences of commonly held conceptions of the nation-state in modern democracies and the transformation of these conceptions over time. He has also published on a variety of topics related to culture, inequality, and social networks, including the impact of ecological competition between musical genres on changes in the distribution of cultural consumption preferences, the use of racial profiling in state counter-terrorism practices, the effects of race and incarceration on labor market inequality (with Devah Pager and Bruce Western), the remunerative consequences of Internet use (with Paul DiMaggio), the demography and network characteristics of entrepreneurial teams (with Martin Ruef), and the social and political significance of voluntary associations (with Miller McPherson).
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George BorjasGeorge J. Borjas
Robert W. Scrivner Professor of Economics and Social Policy

George J. Borjas is the Robert W. Scrivner Professor of Economics and Social Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. He is the recipient of the 2011 IZA Prize in Labor Economics. Professor Borjas is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a Research Fellow at IZA. Professor Borjas is the author of several books, including Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy (Princeton University Press, 1999), and the widely used textbook Labor Economics (McGraw-Hill, 2012), now in its sixth edition. He has published over 125 articles in books and scholarly journals. His professional honors include citations in Who's Who in the World and Who's Who in America. Professor Borjas was elected a fellow of the Econometric Society in 1998 and a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists in 2004. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University in 1975.
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Mary BrintonMary C. Brinton
Reischauer Institute Professor of Sociology
and Chair of the Department of Sociology (on leave 2013-2014)

Professor Mary Brinton's research and teaching focus on gender inequality, education, labor markets, economic sociology, Japanese society, and comparative sociology. Her research combines qualitative and quantitative methods to study institutional change and its effects on individual action, particularly in labor markets and in education. Brinton generally engages in primary data collection for her research projects, and has designed social surveys, interviews, and observational studies in Japan and Korea. Brinton studied sociolinguistics as an undergraduate at Stanford University, and earned an MA in Japanese Studies and an MA and PhD in Sociology at the University of Washington.
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Amitabh ChandraAmitabh Chandra
Professor of Public Policy

Amitabh Chandra is an economist, Professor of Public Policy, and Director of Health Policy Research at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. He is a Research Fellow at the IZA Institute in Bonn, Germany, and at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). His research focuses on productivity and cost-growth in healthcare and racial disparities in healthcare. His research has been supported by the National Institute of Aging, the National Institute of Child Health and Development, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and has been published in the American Economic Review, the Journal of Political Economy, the New England Journal of Medicine, and Health Affairs. He is an editor of the Journal of Human Resources, Economics Letters, and the American Economic Journal. Professor Chandra has testified to the United States Senate, the National Academy of Science, the Institute of Medicine and the United States Commission on Civil Rights. His research has been featured in the New York Times, the Washington Post, CNN, Newsweek, and on National Public Radio. He is the recipient of an Outstanding Teacher Award, the first-prize recipient of the Upjohn Institute's International Dissertation Research Award, the Kenneth Arrow Award for best paper in health economics, and the Eugene Garfield Award for the impact of medical research.
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David J. DemingDavid J. Deming
Assistant Professor of Education and Economics

Deming's work is broadly in the economics of education, with a focus on the impact of policies and interventions on outcomes other than test scores. His research on the impact of school choice in Charlotte, North Carolina on youth crime and incarceration will appear in the Quarterly Journal of Economics. His research on the impact of Head Start on long-term outcomes such as high school graduation and college attendance was published in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. His current work includes a project on the evaluation of high school performance using non-test score outcomes that is funded by the Spencer Foundation, and an IES-funded project on the outcomes of students who attend for-profit colleges. He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University, an M.P.P. from the University of California-Berkeley, and a B.S. from The Ohio State University.
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Matthew Desmond Matthew Desmond
Assistant Professor of Sociology
and of Social Studies

Matthew Desmond is an Assistant Professor of Sociology and Social Studies (beginning spring term 2012). After receiving his Ph.D. in 2010 from the University of Wisconsin at Madison, he joined the Harvard Society of Fellows as a Junior Fellow. His primary teaching and research interests include urban sociology, race and ethnicity, poverty, social theory, organizations and work, and ethnography. Desmond is the author of On the Fireline: Living and Dying with Wildland Firefighters (2007), which won the Max Weber Award for Distinguished Scholarship by the American Sociological Association, as well as two books on race in America (both with Mustafa Emirbayer): Racial Domination, Racial Progress: The Sociology of Race in America (2009) and The Racial Order (forthcoming). He has written essays on educational inequality, dangerous work, political ideology, race and social theory, and the inner-city housing market. Desmond is the principal investigator of the Milwaukee Area Renters Study, an original survey of tenants in Milwaukee’s low-income private housing sector. His work has been supported by the MacArthur, Ford, and National Science Foundations, as well as by the American Philosophical Society; it also has been profiled in major news outlets such as The New York Times, National Public Radio, Science, and Das Erste. His current project combines ethnographic fieldwork, survey data, and documentary analysis to explore the causes, dynamics, and consequences of eviction among the urban poor and, more broadly, to plumb the inner workings of disadvantaged neighborhoods and the low-cost housing market.
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David T. EllwoodDavid T. Ellwood

Scott M. Black Professor of Political Economy
Dean of the Harvard Kennedy School

David Ellwood, the Scott M. Black Professor of Political Economy, has served as Dean of the John F. Kennedy School of Government since July 1, 2004. As Dean, Ellwood sets the strategic direction of the Kennedy School and leads its efforts to advance the public interest. Ellwood has been Academic Dean of the Kennedy School and served in government as Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at the Department of Health and Human Services (1993-95). Ellwood's academic training is as a labor economist who specializes in poverty and welfare, family change, low pay, and unemployment. He is the author of numerous books and articles, including Welfare Realities: From Rhetoric to Reform, co-authored with Mary Jo Bane. His book Poor Support: Poverty in the American Family was selected by the New York Times Book Review as one of the notable books of 1988 and by the Policy Studies Organization as the outstanding book of 1988. Ellwood’s most recent research (much of it with Christopher Jencks) focused on the changing patterns of family structure in the U.S. and abroad. This research examines how timing of childbearing and marriage have changed in various nations, whether there are differences in trends across class/educational background within each nation, and the extent to which economic and sociological models can explain the difference by education within countries and between them. Ellwood has also examined future trends in labor markets and their implications for future patterns of inequality. The research charts the striking shifts in labor force demographics expected over the next 20 years and explores the effects of various policies for dealing with these changes.
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Ronald FergusonRonald F. Ferguson
Senior Lecturer in Education and Public Policy

Ronald Ferguson, Senior Lecturer in Education and Public Policy at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Harvard Kennedy School, is also an economist and Senior Research Associate at the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. He has taught at Harvard since 1983, focusing on education and economic development. His research and writing for the past decade have focused on racial achievement gaps, appearing in a variety of publications. His most recent book is Toward Excellence with Equity: An emerging vision for closing the achievement gap, published by Harvard Education Press. He is the creator of the Tripod Project for School Improvement and also the faculty co-chair and director of the Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University. Ferguson earned an undergraduate degree from Cornell University and PhD from MIT, both in economics.
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Richard B. FreemanRichard B. Freeman
Herbert S. Ascherman Professor of Economics

Richard B. Freeman holds the Herbert Ascherman Chair in Economics at Harvard University. He is currently serving as Faculty Co-Chair of the Harvard University Trade Union Program. He is also director of the Labor Studies Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research, co-director of the London School of Economics' Centre for Economic Performance, and visiting professor at the London School of Economics. Professor Freeman has published over 300 articles dealing with topics in youth labor market problems, crime, higher education, the growth and decline of unionism, self-organizing non-unions in the labor market, restructuring European welfare states, Chinese labor markets, transitional economies, high skilled labor markets, economic discrimination, labor standards and globalization, income distribution and equity in the marketplace. He is currently directing an LSE research program on the effects of the internet on labor markets, social behavior, and the economy. Freeman has written or edited 25 books, several of which have been translated into French, Spanish, Chinese and Japanese. His most recent books include: America Works: The Exceptional Labor Market (NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007); Working at the Endless Frontier, based on the Yale Okun Lectures, in progress; Visible Hands: Labor Institutions in the Economy (Clarendon Lectures, Oxford University Press, 2008); The Labor Market Comes to China (forthcoming 2008); and What Workers Want, with Joel Rogers. (NY: Cornell University Press, 1999, 2006 updated edition), which was selected as one of the Noteworthy Books in Industrial Relations and Labor Economics, 1999, Princeton University Industrial Relations Section.
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Roland FryerRoland G. Fryer
Robert M. Beren Professor of Economics

Roland Fryer, Jr. is the Robert M. Beren Professor of Economics at Harvard University, a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a former junior fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows — one of academia’s most prestigious research posts. In January 2008, at the age of 30, he became the youngest African-American to receive tenure from Harvard. He has been awarded a Sloan Research Fellowship, a Faculty Early Career Development Award from the National Science Foundation, and the inaugural Alphonse Fletcher Award (―Guggenheims for race issues). In addition to his teaching and research responsibilities, Fryer served as the Chief Equality Officer at the New York City Department of Education during the 2007–2008 school year. In this role, he developed and implemented several innovative ideas on student motivation and teacher pay-for-performance concepts. He won a Titanium Lion at the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival (Breakthrough Idea of the Year in 2008) for the Million Motivation Campaign. Fryer has published papers on topics such as the racial achievement gap, the causes and consequences of distinctively black names, affirmative action, the impact of the crack cocaine epidemic, historically black colleges and universities, and ―acting white. He is an unapologetic analyst of American inequality who uses theoretical, empirical and experimental tools to squeeze truths from data — wherever that may lead. Fryer is a 2009 recipient of a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, the highest award bestowed by the government on scientists beginning their independent careers. He is also part of the "2009 Time 100," Time Magazine's annual list of the world's most influential people. Fryer's work has been profiled in almost every major US newspaper, Time Magazine, and CNN’s breakthrough documentary Black in America.
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Archon FungArchon Fung
Ford Foundation Professor of Democracy
and Citizenship

Archon Fung is Ford Foundation Professor of Democracy and Citizenship at the Harvard Kennedy School. His research examines the impacts of civic participation, public deliberation, and transparency upon public and private governance. His Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy examines two participatory-democratic reform efforts in low-income Chicago neighborhoods. Current projects also examine initiatives in ecosystem management, toxics reduction, endangered species protection, local governance, and international labor standards. His recent books and edited collections include Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance; Can We Eliminate Sweatshops?; Working Capital: The Power of Labors Pensions; and Beyond Backyard Environmentalism. His articles on regulation, rights, and participation appear in Political Theory; Journal of Political Philosophy; Politics and Society; Governance; Environmental Management; American Behavioral Scientist; and Boston Review. Fung received two SBs and a PhD from MIT.
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Filiz GaripFiliz Garip
Associate Professor of Sociology

Filiz Garip received her Ph.D. in Sociology and M.S.E in Operations Research & Financial Engineering both from Princeton University. Her empirical research spans the substantive fields of migration, inequality, diffusion, social networks, economic sociology, and development. Her methodological approach is to develop and employ custom analysis techniques that can most effectively answer the substantive question at-hand. She primarily applies quantitative methods and analyzes large survey data, yet supplements the empirical results with insights from qualitative field observation. Besides flexibility with respect to different styles of analysis, her research is characterized by openness to multiple disciplinary viewpoints. Coming from an engineering background, she often combines different approaches, ideas or methods that are typically separated by disciplinary boundaries.
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Claudine GayClaudine Gay
Professor of Government
and of African and African American Studies

Claudine Gay is a professor of government at Harvard University. Her research and teaching interests are in the fields of American political behavior, public opinion, and race and ethnic politics. Before joining the Department of Government in September 2006, Gay was an assistant professor of political science at Stanford University from 2000 to 2005, and an associate professor from 2005 to 2006. From 1999 to 2000, Gay was a Visiting Fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California where she conducted research and published a monograph that examined voter participation in minority-dominated congressional districts. Gay earned her PhD from the Department of Government at Harvard University in 1998 and was awarded the department's Toppan Prize for the best dissertation in political science. Gay's research has considered the effects of descriptive representation on citizens' orientations toward their government, the role of neighborhoods in shaping the racial and political attitudes of Black Americans, the roots of competition and cooperation between minority groups, and the effects of concentrated poverty on political engagement. Her work has been published in Political Psychology, the American Political Science Review, and the American Journal of Political Science.
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Edward GlaeserEdward L. Glaeser
Fred and Eleanor Glimp Professor of Economics

Edward Glaeser is Fred and Eleanor Glimp Professor of Economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Director of the Taubman Center for State and Local Government and of the Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston. He teaches in microeconomic theory. His work has also examined the causes of hatred and why the U.S. doesn't have a European-style welfare state. He has published dozens of papers on cities, economic growth, law and economics. In particular, his work has focused on the determinants of city growth and the role of cities as centers of idea transmission. He also edits the Quarterly Journal of Economics. Glaeser received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1992.
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Claudia GoldinClaudia Goldin
Henry Lee Professor of Economics

Claudia Goldin is the Henry Lee Professor of Economics at Harvard University and director of the NBER’s Development of the American Economy program. Goldin’s research is in the general area of American economic history and has covered a wide array of topics, such as slavery, emancipation, the post-bellum South, women in the economy, the economic impact of war, immigration, New Deal policies, inequality, technological change, and education. Most of her research interprets the “present through the lens of the past” and explores the origins of current issues of concern. In the past several years her work has concerned the rise of mass education in the United States and its impact on economic growth and wage inequality. More recently she has focused her attention on college women’s achievement of career and family. She is the author and editor of several books, among them Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women (Oxford 1990), The Regulated Economy: A Historical Approach to Political Economy (with G. Libecap; University of Chicago Press 1994), The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century (with M. Bordo and E. White; University of Chicago Press 1998), and Corruption and Reform: Lesson’s from America’s Economic History (with E. Glaeser; Chicago 2006). Her most recent book is The Race between Education and Technology (with L. Katz; The Belknap Press, 2008), winner of the 2008 R.R. Hawkins Award for the most outstanding scholarly work in all disciplines of the arts and sciences. Goldin is best known for her historical work on women in the U.S. economy. Her most recent papers in that area have concerned the impact of “the pill” on women’s career and marriage decisions, women’s surnames after marriage as a social indicator, the reasons why women are now the majority of undergraduates, the history of women’s quest for career and family, and coeducation in higher education. She has recently embarked on a wide ranging project on the family and career “transitions” of male and female graduates of selective universities from the late 1960s to the present. In 2007 Goldin was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences and was the Gilman Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Society of Labor Economists (SOLE), and the Econometric Society. In 2009 SOLE awarded Goldin the Mincer Prize for life-time contributions to the field of labor economics. Goldin completed her term as the President of the Economic History Association in 2000. In 1991 Goldin was a Vice President of the American Economic Association. From 1984 to 1988 she was editor of the Journal of Economic History and is currently an associate editor of the Quarterly Journal of Economics and a member of various editorial boards. She is the recipient of various teaching awards. Goldin received her B.A. from Cornell University and her Ph.D. from the University of Chicago
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Joshua GoodmanJoshua S. Goodman
Assistant Professor of Public Policy

Joshua S. Goodman, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, teaches empirical methods and the economics of education. His research interests include labor and public economics, with a particular focus on education policy. He has explored whether merit scholarships impact the college enrollment decisions of high school graduates, the extent to which low college enrollment rates of low income students are due to financial constraints or low academic skill, and the labor market impact of forcing high school students to take more math courses. Goodman received a B.A. in physics from Harvard University, an M.Phil. in education from Cambridge University, and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University. Prior to starting his Ph.D., he was a public high school math teacher in Watertown, MA.
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Peter A. HallPeter A. Hall
Krupp Foundation Professor of European Studies

Peter A. Hall is Krupp Foundation Professor of European Studies, a Faculty Associate of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, and Co-Director of the Program on Successful Societies for the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. Hall is co-editor of Successful Societies: How Institutions and Culture Affect Health (with M. Lamont), Changing France: The Politics that Markets Make (with B. Palier, P. Culpepper), Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage (with D. Soskice), The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations, Developments in French Politics I and II (with A. Guyomarch, J. Hayward and H. Machin), European Labor in the 1980s and the author of Governing the Economy: The Politics of State Intervention in Britain and France, as well as over seventy articles on European politics, public policy-making, and comparative political economy. He serves on the editorial boards of many journals and the advisory boards of several European institutes. He is currently working on the methodology of political science, the political response to economic challenges in postwar Europe, and the impact of social institutions on inequalities in health.
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Jennifer HochschildJennifer L. Hochschild

Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor of Government and of African and African-American Studies

Jennifer Hochschild Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor of Government and Professor of African and African American Studies American Politics Jennifer Hochschild joined the Government Department in January 2001, and is now the Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor Government, Professor of African and African American Studies, and Harvard College Professor. She also holds lectureships in the Kennedy School of Government and the Graduate School of Education. Prof. Hochschild studies the intersection of American politics and political philosophy -- particularly in the areas of race, ethnicity, and immigration -- and educational policy. She also works on issues in public opinion and political culture. She is the co-author of The American Dream and the Public Schools (Oxford University Press, 2003); and author of Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul of the Nation (Princeton University Press, 1995); The New American Dilemma: Liberal Democracy and School Desegregation (Yale University Press, 1984); and What's Fair: American Beliefs about Distributive Justice (Harvard University Press, 1981). She is also a co-author or co-editor of other books and articles. Her current project is tentatively entitled Racial Transformation?: Immigration, Multiracialism, DNA, and Cohort Change. She is also working on projects about the politics of genomic science, the role of factual (mis)information in citizens' political opinions, and immigrant political incorporation in the United States and other OECD countries.
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Torben IversenTorben Iversen
Harold Hitchings Burbank Professor of Government

Torben Iversen is Harold Hitchings Burbank Professor of Political Economy. His research and teaching interests include comparative political economy, electoral politics, and applied formal theory. He is the author of Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare (Cambridge University Press, 2005), Contested Economic Institutions (Cambridge University Press, 1999), and co-editor of Unions, Employers and Central Bankers (Cambridge University Press, 2000). He has previously written about voting and party behavior, while most of his current work focuses on the political economy of distribution and economic performance. He is the author or co-author of more than two dozen articles in the American Journal of Political Science, American Political Science Review, Annual Review of Political Science, British Journal of Political Science, Comparative Politics, Comparative Political Studies, International Organization, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Public Choice, Quarterly Journal of Economics, World Politics, and numerous edited volumes. He is currently working on two book-length projects: one on the political representation of economic interests (with David Soskice), and another on the political economy of gender inequality (with Frances Rosenbluth).
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Sandy JencksChristopher Jencks

Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy

Christopher 'Sandy' Jencks is the Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy. He has taught at Harvard, Northwestern, the University of Chicago, and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Earlier, he was a Fellow of the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, DC (1963 to 1967) and an editor of the New Republic (1961 to 1963). He is currently a member of the Editorial Board of the American Prospect. His recent research deals with changes in family structure over the past generation, the costs and benefits of economic inequality, the extent to which economic advantages are inherited, and the effects of welfare reform. His books include The Academic Revolution (with David Riesman); Inequality: Who Gets Ahead?; The Urban Underclass (with Paul Peterson); Rethinking Social Policy; The Homeless; and The Black White Test Score Gap (with Meredith Phillips).
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Thomas KaneThomas J. Kane
Walter H. Gale Professor of Education and Economics

Thomas Kane is professor of education and economics at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and faculty director of the Center for Education Policy Research, a program that partners with states and districts to evaluate innovative policies. He directed the Measures of Effective Teaching project for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. His work has spanned both K-12 and higher education: the design of school accountability systems, teacher recruitment and retention, financial aid for college, race-conscious college admissions and public financing of community colleges. From 1995 to 1996, Kane served as the senior economist for labor, education, and welfare policy issues within President Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers. From 1991 through 2000, he was a faculty member at the Kennedy School of Government. Kane has also been a professor of public policy at UCLA and has held visiting fellowships at the Brookings Institution and the Hoover Institution at Stanford University.
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Lawrence KatzLawrence F. Katz

Elisabeth Allison Professor of Economics

Lawrence F. Katz is the Elisabeth Allison Professor of Economics at Harvard University and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. His research focuses on issues in labor economics and the economics of social problems. He is the author (with Claudia Goldin) of The Race between Education and Technology (Harvard University Press, 2008), a history of U.S. economic inequality and the roles of technological change and the pace of educational advance in affecting the wage structure. Katz also has been studying the impacts of neighborhood poverty on low-income families as the principal investigator of the long-term evaluation of the Moving to Opportunity program, a randomized housing mobility experiment. And Katz is working with Claudia Goldin on a long-term project studying the historical evolution of career and family choices and outcomes for U.S. college men and women. His past research has explored a wide range of topics including the U.S. and comparative wage inequality trends, the impact of globalization and technological change on the labor market, the economics of immigration, unemployment, regional labor markets, the evaluation of labor market programs, the problems of low-income neighborhoods, and the social and economic consequences of the birth control pill. Professor Katz has been editor of the Quarterly Journal of Economics since 1991 and served as the Chief Economist of the U.S. Department of Labor for 1993 and 1994. Katz graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1981 and earned his Ph.D. in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1985.
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Alex KeyssarAlexander Keyssar
Matthew W. Stirling, Jr., Professor of History and Social Policy

Alexander Keyssar is the Matthew W. Stirling Jr. Professor of History and Social Policy. An historian by training, he has specialized in the excavation of issues that have contemporary policy implications. His 1986 book, Out of Work: The First Century of Unemployment in Massachusetts, was awarded three scholarly prizes. His most recent book, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (2000), was named the best book in U.S. history by the American Historical Association and the Historical Society; it was also a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize and the Los Angeles Times Book Award. Keyssar is coauthor of Inventing America, a text integrating the history of technology and science into the mainstream of American history, as well as coeditor of a series on Comparative and International Working-Class History. Keyssar's current research interests include election reform, the history of democracies and the history of poverty.
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Alexandra KillewaldAlexandra (Sasha) Killewald
Assistant Professor of Sociology

Alexandra (Sasha) Killewald is Assistant Professor of Sociology. She received her Ph.D. in Public Policy and Sociology from the University of Michigan in 2011. Prior to her appointment at Harvard she was a researcher at Mathematica Policy Research. Her research takes a demographic approach to the study of social stratification. Much of her work focuses on the work-family intersection. She has published (with Margaret Gough) several articles on the ways in which earnings and employment shape women’s time in household labor. Her current research in this area explores the effect of marriage and parenthood on workers’ wages. Another area of her research examines the influence of parental wealth on adult outcomes, including the role of parental wealth in explaining the Black-White wealth gap. She has also written (with Kerwin Charles and Erik Hurst) on assortative mating by parental wealth.
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Michele LamontMichèle Lamont
Robert I. Goldman Professor of European Studies and Professor of Sociology and African and African American Studies

Michèle Lamont is Robert I. Goldman Professor of European Studies and Professor of Sociology and African and African American Studies at Harvard University. She is a fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research and is co-director of its research program on Successful Societies. Lamont specializes in the sociology of culture and inequality, race and ethnicity, symbolic and social boundaries, the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of higher education, and comparative and qualitative sociology. She is the author of Money, Morals and Manners: The Culture of the French and the American Upper-Middle Class (University of Chicago Press, 1992), The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class and Immigration (Harvard University Press, 2000) and How Professors Think: Inside the Curious World of Academic Judgment (Harvard University Press, 2009). She has published over eighty peer-reviewed articles and book chapters and has led multi-year collaborative projects that have resulted in collective books (e.g. Rethinking Comparative Cultural Sociology: Repertoires of Evaluation in France in the United States, with Laurent Thévenot, Cambridge University Press, 2000). Recent book-length publications include Successful Societies: How Institutions and Culture Affect Health (with Peter Hall, Cambridge University Press 2009), “Reconsidering Culture and Poverty” (a special issue of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, with David Harding and Mario Small, 2010), and Social Knowledge in the Making (with Charles Camic and Neil Gross, University of Chicago Press, due out in August 2011). Lamont is currently working on a large collaborative project on responses to stigmatization in Brazil, Israel and the United States, with the support of the National Science Foundation, the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, and others. This research is featured in a forthcoming issue of the journal Ethnic and Racial Studies (February 2012). She is also completing Social Resilience in the Neo-Liberal Era (with Peter Hall; due out in February 2012); a comparative study of the conditions of success for interdisciplinary research teams (with Veronica Boix-Mansilla and Kyoko Sato); and a theoretical paper on the sociology of valuation processes (for Annual Review of Sociology).
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Jeffrey B. LiebmanJeffrey B. Liebman
Malcolm Wiener Professor of Public Policy

Jeffrey B. Liebman, Malcolm Wiener Professor of Public Policy, teaches courses in social policy, public sector economics, and American economic policy. In his research, he studies tax and budget policy, social insurance, poverty, and income inequality. Recent research has examined the impacts of government programs such as the Earned Income Tax Credit, Social Security, and housing vouchers. During the first two years of the Obama Administration, Liebman served at OMB, first as Executive Associate Director and Chief Economist and then as Acting Deputy Director. From 1998 to 1999, Liebman served as Special Assistant to the President for economic policy and coordinated the Clinton Administration's Social Security reform technical working group. Liebman received his BA from Yale University and his MA and PhD in economics from Harvard.
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Jane MansbridgeJane J. Mansbridge
Adams Professor of Political Leadership and Democratic Values

Jane Mansbridge, Adams Professor of Political Leadership and Democratic Values, is the author of Beyond Adversary Democracy, an empirical and normative study of face-to-face democracy, and the award-winning Why We Lost the ERA, a study of anti-deliberative dynamics in social movements based on organizing for an Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. She is also editor or coeditor of the volumes Beyond Self-Interest, Feminism, and Oppositional Consciousness. Her current work includes studies of representation, democratic deliberation, everyday activism, and the public understanding of collective action problems.
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Jal MehtaJal Mehta
Associate Professor of Education

Jal Mehta is an Associate Professor in Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. His primary research interest is in understanding what it would take to create high quality schooling at scale, with a particular interest in the professionalization of teaching. He is the co-editor of the recently released The Futures of School Reform (Cambridge: Harvard Education Press, 2012), and the author of The Allure of Order: High Hopes, Dashed Expectations and the Troubled Quest to Remake American Schooling (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013). He is currently working on two projects: The Chastened Dream, a history of the effort to link social science with social policy to achieve social progress; and In Search of Deeper Learning, a contemporary study of schools, systems, and nations that are seeking to produce ambitious instruction. Jal received his Ph.D. in Sociology and Social Policy from Harvard University.
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Pamela L. Metz
Associate Director

Pamela Metz is the founding Associate Director of the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality & Social Policy, a National Science Foundation IGERT training program established at Harvard University in 1998. She also oversees administration of the Harvard joint Ph.D. Programs in Social Policy. She is a strong believer of the power of multidisciplinary perspectives to better inform our understanding of social policy issues. Prior to joining the Inequality and Social Policy programs, Metz was a Ph.D. candidate in Government at Harvard, where she studied international relations, political economy, and Latin American politics. She has been a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow, a Harvard MacArthur Fellow in International Security, and a teaching fellow in Harvard College for various courses in international relations and American foreign policy. She received her B.A. with Honors in Political Science from Wellesley College. In her spare time, she dreams of Downeast Maine—particularly the easternmost town of Lubec.

Richard MurnaneRichard J. Murnane
Juliana W. and William Foss Thompson Professor of Education and Society

Richard Murnane, an economist, is Thompson Professor of Education and Society at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE) and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. In recent years he has pursued three lines of research. With MIT Professors Frank Levy and David Autor, he has examined how computer-based technological change has affected skill demands in the U.S. economy. Murnane and Levy have written two books on this topic. The second line of research examines how increases in family income inequality in the U.S. have influenced educational opportunities for children from low-income families. Murnane and Greg Duncan have co-edited a volume describing four years of research on this topic. The volume, Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances, will be published in September 2011. The third area of research examines the consequences of particular initiatives designed to improve the performance of the education sector. For example, along with HGSE colleagues, Murnane has examined the consequences of providing salary bonuses to attract skilled teachers to high need schools and the impact that exit examination requirements have on the probability that economically disadvantaged students graduate from high school. Murnane and his colleague, John Willett, recently published a book Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research (Oxford U. Press, 2011).
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Devah PagerDevah Pager
Professor of Sociology and Public Policy
Director, Multidisciplinary Program in Inequailty & Social Policy
Faculty Chair, Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management

Devah Pager is Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at Harvard University. In 2014-2015 she serves Director of the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality & Social Policy and Faculty Chair of the Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management. Her research focuses on institutions affecting racial stratification, including education, labor markets, and the criminal justice system. Pager's research has involved a series of field experiments studying discrimination against minorities and ex-offenders in the low-wage labor market. Her book, Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration (University of Chicago, 2007), investigates the racial and economic consequences of large scale imprisonment for contemporary U.S. labor markets. Pager holds Masters Degrees from Stanford University and the University of Cape Town, and a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
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Orlando PattersonOrlando Patterson
John Cowles Professor of Sociology

Orlando Patterson, a historical and cultural sociologist, is John Cowles Professor of Sociology at Harvard University. His academic interests include the culture and practice of freedom; the comparative study of slavery and ethno-racial relations; the sociology of underdevelopment with special reference to the Caribbean; and the problems of gender and familial relations in the black societies of the Americas. He is especially interested in the ways that cultural processes relate to poverty and other social outcomes. Professor Patterson is the author of numerous academic papers and 5 major academic books including, Slavery and Social Death (1982); Freedom in the Making of Western Culture (1991); and The Ordeal of Integration (1997) A public intellectual, Professor Patterson was, for eight years, Special Advisor for Social policy and development to Prime Minister Michael Manley of Jamaica. He was a founding member of Cultural Survival, one of the leading advocacy groups for the rights of indigenous peoples, and was for several years a board member of Freedom House, a major civic organization for the promotion of freedom and democracy around the world. The author of three novels, he has published widely in journals of opinion and the national press, especially the New York Times, where he was recently a guest columnist for several weeks. His columns have also appeared in Time Magazine, Newsweek, The Public Interest, The New Republic, and the Washington Post. He is the recipient of many awards, including the National Book Award for Non-Fiction which he won in 1991 for his book on freedom; the Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship Award of the American Sociological Association; and co-winner of the Ralph Bunche Award for the best book on pluralism from the American Political Science Association. He holds honorary degrees from several universities, including the University of Chicago, U.C.L.A and La Trobe University in Australia. He was awarded the Order of Distinction by the Government of Jamaica in 1999. Professor Patterson has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1991.
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Paul E. PetersonPaul E. Peterson

Henry Lee Shattuck Professor of Government

Paul E. Peterson is the Henry Lee Shattuck Professor of Government, Director of the Program on Education Policy and Governance at Harvard University and Editor in Chief of Education Next, a journal of opinion and research on education policy. He is a former Director of the Center for American Political Studies at Harvard University and of the Governmental Studies program at the Brookings Institution. He is the author of the book, Saving Schools: From Horace Mann to Virtual Learning (Harvard University Press, 2010). Peterson is also the author or editor of numerous other publications, including The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools; Charters, Vouchers, and Public Education; Earning and Learning: How Schools Matter; Learning From School Choice; The Politics of School Reform: 1870-1940; School Politics Chicago Style; City Limits; The New Urban Reality; The Urban Underclass; The Price of Federalism; Welfare Magnets; and The New American Democracy. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, he was a professor for many years there in the Departments of Political Science and Education. Peterson chaired the Social Science Research Council's Committee on the Urban Underclass and has served on many committees of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Education and has received fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the German Marshall Foundation, and the Center for Study in the Behavioral Sciences. Most recently he was awarded the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation prize for Distinguished Scholarship, part of its Excellence in Education award program. He has also been appointed to a Department of Education independent review panel to advise the agency in evaluating the No Child Left Behind Act.
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Robert PutnamRobert D. Putnam
Peter and Isabel Malkin Professor of Public Policy

Robert D. Putnam is the Peter and Isabel Malkin Professor of Public Policy at Harvard, where he teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses. Professor Putnam is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the British Academy, and past president of the American Political Science Association. In 2006, Putnam received the Skytte Prize, one of the world's highest accolades for a political scientist. Raised in a small town in the Midwest and educated at Swarthmore, Oxford, and Yale, he has served as Dean of the Kennedy School of Government. He has written a dozen books, translated into seventeen languages, including the best-selling Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, and more recently Better Together: Restoring the American Community, a study of promising new forms of social connectedness. His previous book, Making Democracy Work, was praised by the Economist as "a great work of social science, worthy to rank alongside de Tocqueville, Pareto and Weber." Both Making Democracy Work and Bowling Alone rank high among the most cited publications in the social sciences worldwide in the last several decades. Putnam's most recent book, American Grace, co-authored with David Campbell of Notre Dame, focuses on the role of religion in American public life. Based on data from two of the most comprehensive national surveys on religion and civic engagement ever conducted, American Grace is the winner of the American Political Science Association's 2011 Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for the best book on government, politics, or international affairs. He consults widely with national leaders, including US Presidents Bush and Clinton, British Prime Ministers Blair and Brown, and Ireland's Bertie Ahern. He founded the Saguaro Seminar, bringing together leading thinkers and practitioners to develop actionable ideas for civic renewal. His earlier work included research on comparative political elites, Italian politics, and globalization. Before coming to Harvard in 1979, he taught at the University of Michigan and served on the staff of the National Security Council. He is currently working on three major empirical projects: (1) the changing role of religion in contemporary America, (2) the effects of workplace practices on family and community life, and (3) practical strategies for civic renewal in the United States in the context of immigration and social and ethnic diversity.
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Robert J. SampsonRobert J. Sampson
Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences
Director of the Social Sciences Program at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study

Robert J. Sampson served as Chair of the Department of Sociology from 2005-2010 and taught at the University of Chicago for twelve years before moving to Harvard in 2003. He also taught at the University of Illinois and was Senior Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation. Sampson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2008 and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Society of Criminology, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Political and Social Science. He is President-Elect of the American Society of Criminology and in June of 2011 he and his colleague John Laub received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology. Professor Sampson's research covers a variety of areas including crime, disorder, the life course, neighborhood effects, collective civic life, urban inequality, ecometrics, and the social structure of the city. He is the author of several books and numerous papers. In the fall of 2011 the University of Chicago Press will publish the culmination of over a decade's research based on the "Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods" (PHDCN), which Sampson served as Scientific Director. For information or to order: Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect.
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Monica SinghalMonica Singhal
Associate Professor of Public Policy

Monica Singhal is an Associate Professor of Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. Her primary area of interest is public finance, and her research has focused on fiscal federalism, redistribution, and public finance in developing countries. Recent research projects have examined systems of extragovernmental finance in developing countries and the effect of culture on redistributive preferences. She is a faculty research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and a member of the International Growth Centre (IGC). She received her BA and PhD from Harvard University.
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Theda SkocpolTheda Skocpol
Victor S. Thomas Professor of Government and of Sociology

Theda Skocpol is the Victor S. Thomas Professor of Government and Sociology. From 2005 to 2007, she served as Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. During Skocpol’s tenure as Dean, the Graduate School at Harvard reached out to engage faculty in new ways and undertook new initiatives in sharing information, monitoring student progress toward the PhD, improving the funding of graduate education, and promoting interdisciplinary studies. From 2000 to 2006, Skocpol served as Director of the Center for American Political Studies at Harvard, expanding this center from a tiny operation within one department into a broadly interdisciplinary center supporting joint faculty projects and graduate and undergraduate research on all aspects of modern U.S. politics. Skocpol received her BA in 1969 from Michigan State University and her PhD in 1975 from Harvard University. In 1996, Skocpol served as President of the Social Science History Association, an interdisciplinary professional group; and from 2001 to 2003 she served as President-Elect and then President, during it's centennial year, of the 14,000-member American Political Science Association. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, and has held fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, the Russell Sage Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Skocpol has also been awarded honorary degrees by Michigan State University, Northwestern University, and Amherst College. In 2007, she was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science for her “visionary analysis of the significance of the state for revolutions, welfare, and political trust, pursued with theoretical depth and empirical evidence.” The Skytte Prize is one of the largest and most prestigious in political science and is awarded annually by the Skytte Foundation at Uppsala University (Sweden) to the scholar who in the view of the foundation has made the most valuable contribution to the discipline. The author of nine books, nine edited collections, and more than seven dozen articles, Skocpol is recognized as one of the most cited and widely influential scholars in the modern social sciences; her work has contributed to the study of comparative politics, American politics, comparative and historical sociology, U.S. history, and the study of public policy. Her first book, States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China (1979), won the 1979 C. Wright Mills Award and the 1980 American Sociological Association Award for a Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship. A leader in historical-institutional and comparative research, Skocpol edited Vision and Method in Historical Sociology (1984) and co-edited the influential Social Science Research Council collection Bringing the State Back In (1985). For the past fifteen years, Skocpol’s research has focused on U.S. politics in historical and comparative perspective. Her Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (1992), won five scholarly awards: the J. David Greenstone Award of the Politics and History Section of the American Political Science Association; the Outstanding Book Award of the Political Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association; the 1993 Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award of the American Political Science Association, given annually for “the best book published in the United States during the prior year on government, politics or international affairs; the 1993 Allan Sharlin Memorial Award of the Social Science History Association; and the 1993 Ralph Waldo Emerson Award of Phi Beta Kappa, given to honor “a comprehensive study that contributes significantly to historical, philosophical, or religious interpretations of the human condition.” Skocpol’s recent books include Boomerang: Health Reform and the Turn Against Government (1996); Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life (2003, winner of the 2004 Greenstone Award); Inequality and American Democracy: What We Know and What We Need to Learn (edited with Lawrence R. Jacobs, 2005); What a Mighty Power We Can Be: African American Fraternal Groups and the Struggle for Racial Equality (with Ariane Liazos and Marshall Ganz), published by Princeton University Press, 2006, which received the 2007 Oliver Cromwell Cox Award presented by the Section on Racial and Ethnic Minorities of the American Sociological Association; and The Transformation of American Politics (co-edited with Paul Pierson, 2007). Skocpol's research focuses on U.S. social policy and civic engagement in American democracy, including changes since the 1960s. She has recently launched new projects on the development of U.S. higher education and on the transformations of U.S. federal policies in the Obama era.
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Mary C. WatersMary C. Waters
M.E. Zukerman Professor of Sociology

Mary C. Waters She specializes in the study of immigration, inter-group relations, the formation of racial and ethnic identity among the children of immigrants, and the challenges of measuring race and ethnicity. Waters received a B.A. in Philosophy from Johns Hopkins University in 1978, an M.A. in Demography (1981) and an M.A. (1983) and PhD in Sociology (1986) from the University of California at Berkeley . She has taught at Harvard University since 1986, and was chair of the Sociology Department from 2001-2005. Her most current publications are The Next Generation: The Children of Immigrants in Europe and North America (co-edited with Richard Alba), (New York University Press, 2010); Inheriting the City: The Second Generation Comes of Age (with Jennifer Holdaway, Philip Kasinitz, and John Mollenkopf), (Harvard University and Russell Sage Press, 2008); and The New Americans: A Guide to Immigration Since 1965 (with Reed Ueda and Helen Marrow), (Harvard University Press, 2007). She is also author of Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities (Harvard University Press, 1999, paper ed. 2001). This book won five scholarly awards including the Mira Komarovsky Award of the Eastern Sociological Society, the Otis Dudley Duncan Award of the Population Section of the American Sociological Association, the Thomas and Znaniecki Award of the International Migration Section of the American Sociological Association, the Best Book Award of the Section on Race and Urban Politics of the American Political Science Association, and the Best Book Award of the Center for the Study of Inequality of Cornell University. Her other books include Becoming New Yorkers: Ethnographies of the New Second Generation (co-edited with Phillip Kasinitz and John Mollenkopf) (Russell Sage Foundation Press, 2004), Social Inequalities in Comparative Perspective (co-edited with Fiona Devine) (Blackwell Press, 2004), The New Race Question: How the Census Counts Multiracial Individuals (co-edited with Joel Perlmann) (Russell Sage Foundation Press, 2002, paper 2005), The Changing Face of Home: The Transnational Lives of the Second Generation (co-edited with Peggy Levitt) (Russell Sage Foundation Press, 2002), Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (University of California Press, 1990) and From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Groups in Contemporary America (with Stanley Lieberson) (Russell Sage Foundation Press, 1988). She is also the author of over 40 articles and chapters on racial and ethnic identity and immigrant assimilation.
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Martin R. WestMartin West
Associate Professor of Education

West studies the politics of K-12 education policy in the United States and the effectiveness of reform strategies in improving student achievement. His current projects include studies of the teacher labor market in Florida, the effects of private school competition on student achievement across countries, and Americans’ understanding of and opinions on education policy. His most recent book (co-edited with Joshua Dunn), From Schoolhouse to Courthouse: The Judiciary’s Role in American Education (Brookings Institution Press), examined the increase in judicial involvement in education policymaking over the past 50 years. West serves as an executive editor of Education Next, a journal of opinion and research on education policy, is deputy director of Harvard’s Program on Education Policy and Governance, and is an affiliate of the Taubman Center for State and Local Government at Harvard Kennedy School. Before joining the Harvard faculty, West taught at Brown University and was a research fellow at the Brookings Institution. He received his Ph.D. in Government and Social Policy from Harvard in 2006 and his M.Phil. in Economic and Social History from Oxford University in 2000.
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Bruce WesternBruce Western
Professor of Sociology and
Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Professor of Criminal Justice
Director of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy

Bruce Western is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Harvard Kennedy School's Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. Western's recent work has focused on the link between social inequality and the growth of prison and jail population in the United States. He finds that the penal system has become a common presence in the lives of poor Americans, with lasting effects on their life chances. As a quantitative social scientist, Western has also contributed to the use of Bayesian statistics in sociology. Western's first book, Between Class and Market: Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist Democracies (Princeton University Press, 1997), examined the growth and decline of trade unions in capitalist democracies. In this volume, Western argues that unions declined in countries without centralized labor markets, union control over the administration of unemployment policies, and strong working class parties. In his second book, Punishment and Inequality in America (Russell Sage Foundation, 2006), Western asks what role incarceration plays in the increasing economic and racial inequality in America. He finds that rising rates of imprisonment among young black men without college education have caused a rift in African American society, and that those with less education are increasingly separated from those with higher education. The book also studies the social and economic effects of mass incarceration: serving time in prison reduces earnings, skews statistics on wages and employment, and destabilizes families. Western received his B.A. in government from the University of Queensland, Australia, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Before moving to Harvard, he taught at Princeton University from 1993 to 2007. Western was a Guggenheim Fellow in 2005, and a Jean Monnet Fellow with the European University Institute between 1995 and 1996, and is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received the James F. Short Jr. distinguished article award, Crime, Law and Deviance Section of the American Sociological Association in 2006 for his article "Black-White Wage Inequality, Employment Rates, and Incarceration." His book Punishment and Inequality in America won the 2007 Albert J. Reiss Award from the Crime Law and Deviance Section of the American Sociological Association and the 2008 Michael J. Hindelang Award for the most outstanding contribution to research on criminology from the American Society of Criminology. He is currently co-chair of a task force on the challenge of mass incarceration for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has served on the council of the American Sociological Association.
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Martin WhyteMartin Whyte
John Zwaanstra Professor of International Studies and Professor of Sociology

Martin Whyte joined the faculty of the Department of Sociology in Fall 2000 after previously teaching at the University of Michigan and George Washington University. Whyte's primary research and teaching specialties are comparative sociology, sociology of the family, sociology of development, the sociological study of contemporary China, and the study of post-communist transitions. Whyte’s most recent writings reflect these divergent interests: an edited volume entitled Marriage in America: A Communitarian Perspective (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000) and an edited collection of papers drawing on a survey project that focused on relations between aging parents and their grown children in urban Chinese families, entitled China's Revolutions and Inter-Generational Relations (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 2003). One newer research project involves surveys on Chinese popular perceptions of inequality trends and views about distributive justice issues. A pilot survey for this project was successfully conducted in Beijing in December 2000. A national survey focusing on inequality and distributive justice issues was completed in the summer of 2004 and the results published in Myth of the Social Volcano (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010). In the fall of 2009 he and colleagues directed a five-year follow-up national survey of Chinese Popular attitudes toward current inequalities. They will be using data from the new survey to examine whether recent trends,including the global financial meltdown,have made Chinese citizens more or less critical of the market-based inequalities within which they now live, Also, in 2006 Whyte organized a conference at Harvard's Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies on the rural-urban gap in China, and he subsequently edited the resulting conferenc volume: One Country,Two Societies: Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).
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Julie WilsonJulie Boatright Wilson
Harry Kahn Senior Lecturer in Social Policy

Julie Wilson is the Harry Kahn Senior Lecturer in Social Policy. From 1993-2011, Wilson served as Director of the Harvard Kennedy School's Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. She is interested in poverty policy, family policy, and urban race relations. Among her recent projects are several case studies on the historical development of poor neighborhoods, studies on adoption from public agencies, and strategies for strengthening families' capacities to parent. Wilson spent three years at the New York State Department of Social Services, where she directed the Office of Program Planning, Analysis, and Development.
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William Julius WilsonWilliam Julius Wilson
Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyser University Professor

William Julius Wilson is Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyser University Professor at Harvard University. He is one of only 20 University Professors, the highest professional distinction for a Harvard faculty member. After receiving the Ph.D. from Washington State University in 1966, Wilson taught sociology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, before joining the University of Chicago faculty in 1972. In 1990 he was appointed the Lucy Flower University Professor and director of the University of Chicago's Center for the Study of Urban Inequality. He joined the faculty at Harvard in July of 1996. Past President of the American Sociological Association, Wilson has received 41 honorary degrees, including honorary doctorates from Princeton, Columbia, the University of Pennsylvania, Northwestern, Johns Hopkins, Dartmouth, and the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. A MacArthur Prize Fellow from 1987 to 1992, Wilson has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Education, the American Philosophical Society, the Institute of Medicine, and the British Academy. In June 1996 he was selected by Time magazine as one of “ America's 25 Most Influential People.” He is a recipient of the 1998 National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor in the United States, and was awarded the Talcott Parsons Prize in the Social Sciences by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003. He is the author of numerous publications, including The Declining Significance of Race, winner of the American Sociological Association's Sydney Spivack Award; The Truly Disadvantaged, which was selected by the editors of the New York Times Book Review as one of the 16 best books of 1987, and received The Washington Monthly Annual Book Award and the Society for the Study of Social Problems' C. Wright Mills Award; When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor, which was selected as one of the notable books of 1996 by the editors of the New York Times Book Review and received the Sidney Hillman Foundation Award; and The Bridge Over the Racial Divide: Rising Inequality and Coalition Politics. Most recently he is the co-author of There Goes the Neighborhood: Racial, Ethnic, and Class Tensions in Four Chicago Neighborhoods and Their Meaning for America and Good Kids in Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social Context. In his latest book, More than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City, published by W.W. Norton in 2009, Professor Wilson presents a new framework for understanding racial inequality.
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Christopher WinshipChristopher Winship
Diker-Tishman Professor of Sociology

Christopher Winship, Diker-Tishman Professor of Sociology and a member of the faculty of the Harvard Kennedy School, was born in Topeka, Kansas and grew up in New Britain, Connecticut. He did his undergraduate work in sociology and mathematics at Dartmouth College and his graduate work in sociology at Harvard, receiving his degree in 1977. After leaving Harvard he did a one year post-doctoral fellowship at the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin and a two-year fellowship at the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. In 1980 he joined the Sociology Department at Northwestern University. During his twelve years at Northwestern he was Director of the Program in Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences and for four years chair of the Department of Sociology. He was a founding member of Northwestern’s Department of Statistics, and held a courtesy appointment in Economics. From 1984 to 1986 he was Director of the Economics Research Center at NORC. He has been a member of the Harvard department since 1992. Since 1995 he has been the editor of Sociological Methods + Research (SMR). He is a faculty associate of the the Harvard Institute for Quantitative Social Science (IQSS), the Harvard Science, Technology + Society (STS) program, and Harvard Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations, and is currently doing research on several topics: The Ten Point Coalition, a group of black ministers who are working with the Boston police to reduce youth violence; statistical models for causal analysis; the effects of education on mental ability; causes of the racial difference in performance in elite colleges and universities; changes in the racial differential in imprisonment rates over the past sixty years.
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