Articles, Papers, Symposia

2014

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Christine M. Cole, Arnold M. Howitt, and Philip B. Heymann. 2014. Making Boston Stronger. ICSS Journal 2 (2), 14-23.
     The ICSS Journal is a publication of the International Centre for Sport Security. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt. 2014. Clearing the Air. Crisis/Response 9 (4), 45-47. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Christine M. Cole, Arnold M. Howitt, and Philip B. Heymann. 2014. Why Was Boston Strong? Lessons from the Boston Marathon Bombing. | PDF

2013

Arnold M. Howitt, Haruo Hayashi, Hiromi Akiyama, David W. Giles, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2013. An Incident Management System for Japan? Crisis/Response 9 (1), 17-19. | PDF

Herman Leonard and Arnold Howitt. 2013. The Medical Response to the Boston Marathon Bombings. ICSS Journal 1 (2), 74-77. | PDF
     The ICSS Journal is a publication of the International Centre for Sport Security.

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2013. Boston Marathon Bombing Response. Crisis/Response 8 (4), 18-21. | PDF

Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2013. Preliminary Thoughts and Observations on the Boston Marathon Bombings. PCL Discussion Paper Series. | PDF
     For more on the above paper, read the Harvard Crimson article profiling Leonard and Howitt's observations or see the MSNBC interview with Dr. Howitt.

Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2013. Crisis Leadership: The Art of Adapting to Extreme Events. PCL Discussion Paper Series. | PDF

Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2013, June 12. Statement before the House Committee on Homeland Security's Subcommittee on
Counterterrorism and Intelligence on Protecting the Homeland against Mumbai-Style Attacks and the Threat from Lashkar-e-Taiba
. | PDF

Faaiza Rashid, Amy C. Edmondson, and Herman B. Leonard. 2013. Leadership Lessons from the Chilean Mine Rescue. Harvard Business Review 91, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2013): 113–119. | MORE

2012

Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2012. Leading in Crises: Observations on the Political and Decision-Making Dimensions of Response. In Ira Helsloot, et al., eds., Mega-Crises: Understanding the Prospects, Nature, Characteristics and Effects of Cataclysmic Events. | MORE

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2012. Working Together in Crises. Crisis/Response 7 (4), 50-51. | PDF

Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2012. Adapting to Novelty: Recognizing the Need for Innovation and Leadership. WNYF 1, 20-23. | PDF

Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2012. Network Fusion: Information and Intelligence Sharing for a Networked World. Homeland Security Affairs 8 (17). | MORE

Sigridur Bjork Thormara, Berthold P.R. Gersonsb, Barbara Juenc, Maria Nelden Djakababaa, Thorlakur Karlssond & Miranda Olffa. 2012.
Organizational factors and mental health in community volunteers. The role of exposure, preparation, training, tasks assigned, and support. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal | MORE

2011

Douglas Ahlers, Arnold M. Howitt, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2011. Preparing in Advance for Disaster Recovery. Global-is-Asian 12 (Oct-Dec), 40-41. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2011. Systems Failure. Crisis/Response 7 (1), 22-25. | PDF

2010

Arrietta Chakos. 2010, May 25. Getting a Jump on the Next Big Disaster. The Huffington Post. Available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/arrietta-chakos/getting-a-jump-on-the-nex_b_588990.html.

Global Agenda Council on Catastrophic Risks, World Economic Forum. 2010. Creating a Better Architecture for Global Risk Management of Catastrophic Risks: A Proposal to the World Economic Forum Global Redesign Initiative. [Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Council Chair.] | PDF

Arnold Howitt and Herman B. Leonard. 2010. The Strategic Balance of Disaster Risk Management. Administration Reform 8 (8), 27-29. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2010. Organizing Response to Extreme Emergencies: Testimony to the Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, 2009. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2010. Professor Dutch Leonard Outlines “Stages” in Haiti Rescue, Recovery, Rebuilding. Harvard Kennedy School. Available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/news-events/news/articles/haiti-leonard-stages-jan10.

Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Acting in Time Against Disaster: A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework. In Howard Kunreuther and Michael Useem (Eds.), Learning from Catastrophes: Strategies for Reaction and Response. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing. | PDF

Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Advance Recovery and the Development of Resilient Organisations and Societies. In Simon Woodward (Ed.), Integrative Risk Management: Advanced Disaster Recovery (pp. 45-58). Zurich: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. | PDF

Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Organising Response to Extreme Emergencies: The Victorian Bush Fires of 2009. Australian Journal of Public Administration 69 (4), 372-386. | PDF

Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Understanding and Coping with the Increasing Risk of System-Level Accidents. In Simon Woodward (Ed.), Integrative Risk Management: Advanced Disaster Recovery (pp. 13-26). Zurich: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. | PDF

2009

Doug C. Ahlers and Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard. 2009. Building the Platform for Accelerated Recovery: The Bay Area and Landscape Scale Disaster. City and County of San Francisco Advance Recovery Planning Workshop.

Doug C. Ahlers and Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard. 2009. Financial Readiness for Landscape Scale Disaster in the Bay Area: A Proposal for an Earthquake Country Mutual Endowment Fund. City and County of San Francisco Advance Recovery Planning Workshop.

Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard. 2009. The Novelty of Crises: How to Prepare for the Unprecedented. In Stefan Sagmeister; David Ulin; Judith Lewis; and Mariana Amatullo (Eds.), The LA Earthquake Sourcebook (pp. 210-217). Pasadena, CA: Art Center College of Design. | PDF

Arnold M Howitt; Ellis M. Stanley; Mike Montgomery; and Andrew Velasquez. 2009. Evacuation Issues: Part II. Crisis/Response Journal 5 (2), 45-46. | PDF

2008

Arrietta Chakos. 2008. Seismic Risk Reduction Sparks Community Resilience. 14th World Congress on Earthquake Engineering; Beijing. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt; Ellis M. Stanley; Mike Montgomery; and Andrew Velasquez. 2008. Evacuation Issues: Part I. Crisis/Response Journal 4 (4), 48-50. | PDF

Herman B. Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2008. 'Routine' or 'Crisis' - The Search for Excellence. Crisis/Response Journal 4 (3), 32-35. | PDF

2007

William G. Barry; Robert Cowher; Charles Harper; Arnold M. Howitt; and Elizabeth Padjen. 2007. Roundtable: Prepared Response. Architecture Boston 10 (3), 18-26. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2007. Against Desperate Peril: High Performance in Emergency Preparation and Response. In Deborah E. Gibbons (Ed.), Communicable Crises: Prevention, Response, and Recovery in the Global Arena (pp. 1-25). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Disaster response requires differentiating types of disaster situations with challenges in execution and planning, yielding to different forms of leadership. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2007. High Performance and Emergency Preparedness and Response: Disaster Type Differences. Taubman Center Policy Briefs, PB-2007-03. | PDF

2006

Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2006. Beyond Katrina: Improving Disaster Response Capabilities. (PDF) Center for Public Leadership Working Papers, Spring, 18-25.
(Also published in the Crisis/Response Journal, June and b2006).

Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2006. In the Eye of the Storm: Helping Education Leaders Meet the Challenge of Dealing with Disasters. Threshold, Fall, 10-13.

Dealing with a natural or technology disaster, terrorism, or an emergent infectious disease may be daunting to school superintendents and principals. Today's educational leaders cannot avoid the challenge of disaster preparedness. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2006. Katrina and the Core Challenges of Disaster Response. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 30 (1).

Hurricane Katrina exposed serious weaknesses in the United States' emergency response capabilities. These problems demonstrate fundamental issues must be addressed if the country is to be ready for serious challenges. These problems arise from the scale of the event, its novelty, complexity of institutions involved, and jurisdictional problems in the response. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2006. Katrina as Prelude: Preparing for and Responding to Katrina-Class Disturbances in the United States. Testimony before the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, March 8, 2006. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 2 (3).

Hurricane Katrina was a severe natural disaster and a story of failures to construct systems in advance to produce better outcomes. | PDF

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2006. Political Control and Operational Command: Building a Balanced Disaster Control System. Supplemental testimony submitted to the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, March 22, 2006.

Posing the question about centralized leadership in a catastrophic event presumes an overall set of issues and actions to be in charge of, and responsibility for all these issues can be taken together. Other strategic options are explored. | PDF

2005

Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2005. A Command System for All Agencies? Crisis/Response Journal 1 (2).

The United States is building a National Incident Management System (NIMS) to handle large-scale emergencies. This system has the potential to be flexible, geographically scalable, and adaptive to novel circumstances. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt and Jonathan Makler. 2005. On the Ground: Protecting America’s Roads and Transit from Terrorism. The Brookings Institution Series on Transportation Reform. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt and Jonathan Makler. 2005. Protecting America’s Highways and Transit Systems against Terrorism. In Bruce Katz and Robert Puentes (Eds.), Taking the High Road: A Transportation Agenda for Strengthening Metropolitan Areas. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

This book chapter reviews steps the federal government, states and localities have taken for highway and transit systems’ security. | More

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Daniel Curran. 2005. Recovery in Aceh: Towards A Strategy of Emergence. Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-082. | PDF

2004

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2004. Leadership in Crisis Situations. In James MacGregor Burns; George R. Goethals; and Georgia J. Sorenson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Leadership (pp. 289-295). Great Barrington, MA: Bekrshire Publishing.

This essay explores questions critical for understanding and responding to crises in government and public affairs. | More

Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2004. The Heat of the Moment. Compass 2 (1), 19-23.

Crisis management teams bring together people from different institutional cultures. Managing their inevitable conflicts can be a leader’s most difficult challenge. | PDF

Arnold M. Howitt and Robyn L. Pangi. 2003. Intergovernmental Challenges of Preparing for Terrorism. In Arnold M. Howitt and Robyn L. Pangi (Eds.), Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Among major obstacles to improving American preparedness for terrorism is the decentralization of the federal system. | More

ADDITIONAL PUBLICATIONS

The Executive Session on Domestic Preparedness (co-sponsored by HKS’s Tabuman Center for State and Local Government and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs) operated from 1999-2003 with the sponsorship of the US Department of Justice. It brought together scholars and senior practitioners from federal, state, and local agencies to consider how the United States could prepare itself for the possibility of terrorist attack – and particularly to explore issues of intergovernmental cooperation in preparedness and response. This program produced a rich set of research papers, policy notes, and books on these topics.

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