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The Saguaro Seminar, under the leadership of Robert D. Putnam, has been conducting research on the inter-relation of diversity (mainly examining race and ethnicity), immigration and social capital since 2001. We have also been examining the relationship between inequality and both diversity and social capital.
The first publication from this research, called 'E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the 21st Century. The 2006 Johan Skytte Lecture by Robert D. Putnam appears in the June 2007 Scandinavian Political Studies Journal. The diversity research was the subject of Robert D. Putnam's 2006 Skytte Prize lecture, the top prize given to political scientists, which some consider the rough equivalent of a Nobel Prize.
There are three key elements of this research, each equally important:
1 - Increased diversity and immigration are essential, inevitable and generally strengthen advanced nations;
2 - But in the short-term, diversity and immigration challenges community cohesion; and
3 - Longer-term, successful immigrant societies overcome these challenges by building a broader sense of "we". America has successfully done this with the wave of immigration from the late 1800s to the early 1900s. This integration can be done through popular culture, education, national symbols, or common experiences (like national service).
Summaries of/commentaries on this research:
Robert Putnam interview with Madeleine Bunting of the Guardian (7/18/07)
The downside of diversity (International Herald Tribune, Boston Globe, 8/5/07, Michael Jonas), which also discusses Scott Page's interesting research
Erica Goode's Home Alone (New York Times Sunday Magazine, 6/17/07)
Capital ideas: His latest research shows ethnic diversity reduces social solidarity, trust and happiness. So why is Robert Putnam so optimistic we can all get along? (Guardian, 7/18/07)
Madeleine Bunting's, Immigration Is Bad For Society, But Only Until A New Solidarity Is Forged (Guardian, 6/18/07)
Diversity may not be the answer (Gregory Rodriguez Op-Ed, Los Angeles Times, 8/13/07)
The bottom line on diversity's 'uncomfortable truth' (Clarence Page, Houston Chronice, 8/15/07)
Erin Hoover Barnett, More Diversity, Less Trust (Oregonian, 6/18/07)
The Wall Street Journal claims the 'Death of Diversity' (8/16/07)
People 'Hunker Down Like Turtles' in Diverse Communities (ABC News, 8/15/07)
So diverse, yet adverse to reaching out(Houston Chronicle, Lisa Gray, 8/30/07)
More Bowling Alone in America (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Richard Handler, 8/22/07) and follow-up article here.
Radio talk shows: Tell Me More (8/14/07), KQED's The Forum (8/20/07) and On Point with Tom Ashbrook (8/9/07) [which also included commentators Lani Guinier and Pat Buchanan]
One interesting outcome of the research has been that the Irvine Foundation has issued a letter from their president underscoring how E Pluribus Unum shows the importance of the Irvine Foundation's work in helping to bridge differences in communities, work on improving immigrants' English-language skills, and making people more comfortable among diversity. Read the Fall 2007 President's letter here
Also there has been some discussion of this among Human Resource professionals. See Diverse and Disengaged? by Scott Flanders (Human Resouce Executive Online, 9/24/07) and Debunking Diversity: Promoting diversity without emphasizing assimilation is counterproductive by Raghav Singh (9/20/07).
There have been a lot of blog posts and discussions about this diversity research. Some interesting blog posts can be found at:
International Herald Tribune comments site
Sepia Mutiny blog
And a Canadian take on these findings in Bumbling along in search of the new 'we' (Globe and Mail, Margaret Wente Op-Ed, 8/11/07) Rallies, Not Riots (Boston Globe, 12/31/06, Robert D. Putnam Op-Ed) highlighting the unsung development of immigrant integration in U.S. relative to Europe.
Saguaro's research on diversity, immigration and social capital has been funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and the Rockefeller Foundation.