HKS Affiliated Authors

Professor of Public Policy, HKS; James Bryant Conant University Professor, FAS

Additional Authors:

  • E. Weyl
  • Divya Siddarth
  • Daron Acemoglu
  • Kate Crawford
  • James Evans
  • Michael Jordan


Cover art for Carr Center Discussion PaperThe dominant vision of artificial intelligence imagines a future of large-scale autonomous systems outperforming humans in an increasing range of felds. This “actually existing AI” vision misconstrues intelligence as autonomous rather than social and relational. It is both unproductive and dangerous, optimizing for artificial metrics of human replication rather than for systemic augmentation, and tending to concentrate power, resources, and decision-making in an engineering elite. Alternative visions based on participating in and augmenting human creativity and cooperation have a long history and underlie many celebrated digital technologies such as personal computers and the internet. Researchers and funders should redirect focus from centralized autonomous general intelligence to a plurality of established and emerging approaches that extend cooperative and augmentative traditions as seen in successes such as Taiwan’s digital democracy project and collective intelligence platforms like Wikipedia.


Divya Siddarth, Daron Acemoglu, Danielle Allen, Kate Crawford, James Evans, Michael Jordan, and E. Glen Weyl. 4/14/2022. “How AI Fails Us.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School.