Colonial Institutions, Trade Shocks, and the Diffusion of Elementary Education in Brazil, 1889-1930. Aldo Musacchio, December 18, 2012 Paper. "In this paper, we examine the role of trade shocks in promoting the diffusion of elementary education in subnational units in Brazil during a period (1889-1930) in which they had relative financial autonomy to collect export taxes and spend on public goods. The argument is that trade shocks affect asymetrically the tax revenues of state governments and, thus, their expenditures on elementary education per capita according to what crop mix they had..." Link