2020, Paper, "The death of economic factors as a determinant of attitudes toward European integration has been exaggerated. Examining 23 years of responses to the Eurobarometer (19952018), we find strong evidence that utilitarian factors influence Europeans’ support for European integration. The performance of the macro-economy, as measured by unemployment, is a consistent predictor of public support for EU membership and satisfaction with EU democracy. An individual’s position in the labor market also remains quite important. The occupational and educational groups that have been relatively advantaged by European integration remain the most supportive of the EU while those that have been relative economic losers indicate lower levels of support. Social identity and ideology are also strong predictors of support for the EU. However, these factors are influenced by economic concerns."
Non-HKS Author Website - Jeffry Frieden