The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion. Christine Exley, September 2, 2019, Paper, "In job applications, job interviews, performance reviews, and a wide range of other environments, individuals are explicitly asked or implicitly invited to describe their performance. In a series of experiments, we find that women subjectively describe their performance less favorably than equally performing men. This gender gap in self-promotion is notably persistent. It stays just as strong when we eliminate gender differences in confidence and when we eliminate strategic incentives to engage in self-promotion. Because of the prevalence of self-promotion opportunities, this self-promotion gap could potentially contribute to the persistent gender gap in education and labor market outcomes." Link