• Frank Dobbin


2023, Paper: "At the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Martin Luther King Jr. spoke of his dream of a future free from racial discrimination and animus. The next year, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, making it illegal for all employers to discriminate on the basis of race or sex. Through the 1960s and 1970s, corporate America made slow but steady progress on opening opportunity. White women, Black women and men, Latinx women and men, and Asian American women and men gained more corporate jobs and made inroads into management.1 But for Black and Latinx Americans, that progress stalled sometime in the 1980s, according to data collected by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.2 In 1985, 6% of Black men working in corporate America were managers, as were 7% of Latinx men. For both groups, the percentages were the same in 2018.3 At this rate, Black and Latinx men will never reach parity with white men, of whom 16% are managers—that number has held steady.4 Over the same period, 4% of Black women working in corporate America were managers at the start, and 5% were managers at the end.5 Latinx women rose from 4 to 6%.6 At this rate it will be a century before either group reaches parity with white men.7"