• Ryan Raffaelli


January 20202, Paper, "This study examines how community-based brick-and-mortar retailers can achieve sustained market growth in the face of online and big box retail competition. The appearance of in 1995 led to a significant decline in the number of in- dependent bookstores in the United States, leading many analysts to predict the demise of the sector. However, between 2009 and 2018 independent bookstores proved to be far more resilient than expected. The American Booksellers Association (ABA) reported a 49% percent growth in the number of “indie” booksellers, from 1,651 in 2009 to 2,470 in 2018. This study identifies “3C’s” that contributed to the independent bookstore resurgence..." 

Non-HKS Author Website - Ryan Raffaelli