November/December 2021, Paper: "What shaped the economics of the microprocessor? In the beginning, replacement of components and redesign of equipment drove sales. Embedding logical instructions in the design of an integrated circuit changed calculators and scientific instruments. Those products found enthusiastic buyers in a generation of engineers and scientists raised on slide rules and vacuum tubes. The rise of personal computers changed the focus. Apple and IBM won a format war, which benefitted their respective suppliers, Motorola, Intel, and IBM’s semiconductor division. Third party software providers added applications. By 1985, IBM’s PC division achieved sales that would have made it the third largest computer company, had it been free-standing. Not long thereafter, IBM lost..."
Non-HKS Author Website - Shane Greenstein