The World Klems Initiative: Measuring Productivity at the Industry Level. Dale Jorgenson, February 2017, Paper, "The World KLEMS Initiative was established at the First World KLEMS Conference at Harvard University in August. The purpose of this Initiative is to generate industry-level data on outputs, inputs, and productivity. Productivity is defined as output per unit of all inputs. The inputs consist of capital (K) and labor (L), the primary factors of production, and intermediate inputs of energy (E), materials (M), and services (S). The acronym KLEMS describes these inputs.  Industry-level data have been proved to be indispensable for analyzing the sources of economic growth for countries around the world." Link