Articles, Papers, Symposia
Nicholas B. Hambridge, Arnold M. Howitt, and David W. Giles. 2018. “Increasing Implementation Effectiveness of NIMS,” Crisis Response Journal 13 (3) | PDF
Simon O'Rourke and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2018. "Operating at the Speed of Challenge: Adaptive C2 as a New Paradigm for Police Command and Control at Critical Incidents," PCL Discussion Paper Series | PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2018. "Preparing for Cyber Incidents with Physical Effects," The Cyber Defense Review 3 (1) | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt, Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, and David W. Giles. "Leadership in Routine Emergencies and Crises: The Deepwater Horizon Incident," The Coast Guard Journal of Safety and Security at Sea: Proceedings of the Marine Safety and Security Council (May-December 2017) | PDF
Mohan Das Manandhar, George Varughese, Arnold M. Howitt, and Erica Kelly. Disaster Preparedness and Response During Political Transition in Nepal: Assessing Civil and Military Roles in the Aftermath of the 2015 Earthquakes (The Asia Foundation, 2017) | MORE
Nicholas B. Hambridge, Arnold M. Howitt, and David W. Giles. 2017. “Coordination in Crises: Implementation of the National Incident Management System by Surface Transportation Agencies,” Homeland Security Affairs 13, Article 3 (April 2017) | PDF
Nicholas B. Hambridge, Arnold M. Howitt, and David W. Giles. 2017. “Surface Transportation as Second Circle Adopter,” Crisis Response Journal 13 (1) | PDF
Nicholas B. Hambridge, Arnold M. Howitt, and David W. Giles. 2017. “What is the Impact of the NIMS Mandate?” Crisis Response Journal 12 (4) | PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2016. "International Anti-Terrorism Preparedness," WNYF | PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer and Ophelia Roman. 2016. "Tiered Response Pyramid: A System-Wide Approach to Build Response Capability and Surge Capacity," Homeland Security Affairs 12 | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Arnold M. Howitt, Christine Cole, and Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2016, September 9. "Command Under Attack: What We've Learned Since 9/11 About Managing Crises," The Conversation | MORE
Joseph Pfeifer. 2016. "Adaptive Resilience Emerges from 9/11 and the 15-Years Following," Homeland Security Affairs 12 (2016) | MORE
Alex Altshuler. 2016. "Israel's Emergency Management Challenges," Strategic Survey for Israel 2015-2016 (Tel Aviv: INSS Publications). | PDF
Philip Dy and Tori Stephens. 2016. "The Typhoon Haiyan Response: Strengthening Coordination among Philippine Government, Civil Society, and International Actors," PCL Discussion Paper Series. | PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2016. "Tiered Response: Preparing for Novelty," Pro EMS 1 (2016). | PDF
Meir Elran, Zipi Israeli, Carmit Padan, and Alex Altshuler. 2015, September. "Social Resilience in the Jewish Communities around the Gaza Strip Envelope during and after Operation Protective Edge," Military and Strategic Affairs 7 (2), 5-31. | PDF
Alex Altshuler. 2015, July 27. "A Novel Model for Predicting the Level of Perceived Secureness in the Face of Large-Scale Emergencies," presented at the International Summer Institute for Disaster and Risk Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. | PDF
Alex Altshuler. 2015, July 23. "Are We Protected? Model for Predicting the Level of Perceived Secureness in the Face of Large-Scale Emergencies," presented at the 2015 Researchers Meeting of the International Research Committee on Disasters, International Sociological Association, University of Colorado at Boulder. | PDF
Meir Elran and Alex Altshuler. 2015. "How (Un)Prepared is Israel for an Emergency?" INSS Insight 761. | PDF
Meir Elran and Alex Altshuler. 2015. "What Can Be Learned from the National Home Front Exercise?" INSS Insight 716, 1-3. | PDF
Alex Altshuler and Meir Elran. 2014. "Inter-Organizational Training for the Emergency Management System," Military and Strategic Affairs 6 (2), 37-47. | PDF
Meir Elran and Alex Altshuler. 2014. The Civilian Front in Operation “Protective Edge”. In The Lessons of Operation Protective Edge, A. Kurz & S. Brom (Eds.) Tel-Aviv: INSS Publications. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Christine M. Cole, and Arnold M. Howitt. 2014. Why was Boston Strong? Law Enforcement Lessons from the Marathon Bombing. Gazette Magazine 76 (4).| MORE
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Christine M. Cole, Arnold M. Howitt, and Philip B. Heymann. 2014. Making Boston Stronger. ICSS Journal 2 (2), 14-23.
The ICSS Journal is a publication of the International Centre for Sport Security.| PDF
Arnold M. Howitt. 2014. Clearing the Air. Crisis/Response9 (4), 45-47. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Christine M. Cole, Arnold M. Howitt, and Philip B. Heymann. 2014. Why Was Boston Strong? Lessons from the Boston Marathon Bombing. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt, Haruo Hayashi, Hiromi Akiyama, David W. Giles, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2013. An Incident Management System for Japan? Crisis/Response9 (1), 17-19. | PDF
Herman Leonard and Arnold Howitt. 2013. The Medical Response to the Boston Marathon Bombings. ICSS Journal 1 (2), 74-77. | PDF
The ICSS Journal is a publication of the International Centre for Sport Security.
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2013. Boston Marathon Bombing Response. Crisis/Response8 (4), 18-21. | PDF
Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2013. Preliminary Thoughts and Observations on the Boston Marathon Bombings. PCL Discussion Paper Series. | PDF
For more on the above paper, read the Harvard Crimson article profiling Leonard and Howitt's observations or see the MSNBC interview with Dr. Howitt.
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2013. Crisis Leadership: The Art of Adapting to Extreme Events. PCL Discussion Paper Series.| PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2013, June 12. Statement before the House Committee on Homeland Security's Subcommittee on
Counterterrorism and Intelligence on Protecting the Homeland against Mumbai-Style Attacks and the Threat from Lashkar-e-Taiba. | PDF
Faaiza Rashid, Amy C. Edmondson, and Herman B. Leonard. 2013. Leadership Lessons from the Chilean Mine Rescue. Harvard Business Review91, nos. 7/8 (July–August 2013): 113–119. | MORE
Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2012. Leading in Crises: Observations on the Political and Decision-Making Dimensions of Response. In Ira Helsloot, et al., eds., Mega-Crises: Understanding the Prospects, Nature, Characteristics and Effects of Cataclysmic Events. | MORE
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2012. Working Together in Crises. Crisis/Response 7 (4),50-51. | PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2012. Adapting to Novelty: Recognizing the Need for Innovation and Leadership. WNYF 1, 20-23. | PDF
Joseph W. Pfeifer. 2012. Network Fusion: Information and Intelligence Sharing for a Networked World. Homeland Security Affairs 8 (17). | PDF
Sigridur Bjork Thormara, Berthold P.R. Gersonsb, Barbara Juenc, Maria Nelden Djakababaa, Thorlakur Karlssond & Miranda Olffa. 2012.
Organizational factors and mental health in community volunteers. The role of exposure, preparation, training, tasks assigned, and support. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal| MORE
Douglas Ahlers, Arnold M. Howitt, and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2011. Preparing in Advance for Disaster Recovery. Global-is-Asian 12 (Oct-Dec), 40-41. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2011. Systems Failure. Crisis/Response 7 (1), 22-25. | PDF
Arrietta Chakos. 2010, May 25. Getting a Jump on the Next Big Disaster. The Huffington Post. Available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/arrietta-chakos/getting-a-jump-on-the-nex_b_588990.html.
Global Agenda Council on Catastrophic Risks, World Economic Forum. 2010. Creating a Better Architecture for Global Risk Management of Catastrophic Risks: A Proposal to the World Economic Forum Global Redesign Initiative. [Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard, Council Chair.] | PDF
Arnold Howitt and Herman B. Leonard. 2010. The Strategic Balance of Disaster Risk Management. Administration Reform8 (8), 27-29. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2010. Organizing Response to Extreme Emergencies: Testimony to the Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, 2009. | PDF
Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Acting in Time Against Disaster: A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework. In Howard Kunreuther and Michael Useem (Eds.), Learning from Catastrophes: Strategies for Reaction and Response. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing. | PDF
Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Advance Recovery and the Development of Resilient Organisations and Societies. In Simon Woodward (Ed.), Integrative Risk Management: Advanced Disaster Recovery (pp. 45-58). Zurich: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. | PDF
Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Organising Response to Extreme Emergencies: The Victorian Bush Fires of 2009. Australian Journal of Public Administration69 (4), 372-386. | PDF
Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2010. Understanding and Coping with the Increasing Risk of System-Level Accidents. In Simon Woodward (Ed.), Integrative Risk Management: Advanced Disaster Recovery(pp. 13-26). Zurich: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. | PDF
Doug C. Ahlers and Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard. 2009. Building the Platform for Accelerated Recovery: The Bay Area and Landscape Scale Disaster.City and County of San Francisco Advance Recovery Planning Workshop.
Doug C. Ahlers and Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard. 2009. Financial Readiness for Landscape Scale Disaster in the Bay Area: A Proposal for an Earthquake Country Mutual Endowment Fund. City and County of San Francisco Advance Recovery Planning Workshop.
Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. “Dutch” Leonard. 2009. The Novelty of Crises: How to Prepare for the Unprecedented.In Stefan Sagmeister; David Ulin; Judith Lewis; and Mariana Amatullo (Eds.), The LA Earthquake Sourcebook (pp. 210-217). Pasadena, CA: Art Center College of Design. | PDF
Arnold M Howitt; Ellis M. Stanley; Mike Montgomery; and Andrew Velasquez. 2009. Evacuation Issues: Part II. Crisis/Response Journal5 (2), 45-46. | PDF
Arrietta Chakos. 2008. Seismic Risk Reduction Sparks Community Resilience.14th World Congress on Earthquake Engineering; Beijing. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt; Ellis M. Stanley; Mike Montgomery; and Andrew Velasquez. 2008. Evacuation Issues: Part I. Crisis/Response Journal4 (4), 48-50. | PDF
Herman B. Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2008. 'Routine' or 'Crisis' - The Search for Excellence. Crisis/Response Journal 4 (3), 32-35. | PDF
William G. Barry; Robert Cowher; Charles Harper; Arnold M. Howitt; and Elizabeth Padjen. 2007. Roundtable: Prepared Response. Architecture Boston10 (3), 18-26. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2007. Against Desperate Peril: High Performance in Emergency Preparation and Response. In Deborah E. Gibbons (Ed.), Communicable Crises: Prevention, Response, and Recovery in the Global Arena(pp. 1-25). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Disaster response requires differentiating types of disaster situations with challenges in execution and planning, yielding to different forms of leadership. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2007. High Performance and Emergency Preparedness and Response: Disaster Type Differences. Taubman Center Policy Briefs, PB-2007-03. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2006. Beyond Katrina: Improving Disaster Response Capabilities. (PDF) Center for Public Leadership Working Papers, Spring, 18-25.
(Also published in the Crisis/Response Journal, June and 2006).
Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2006. In the Eye of the Storm: Helping Education Leaders Meet the Challenge of Dealing with Disasters. Threshold, Fall, 10-13.
Dealing with a natural or technology disaster, terrorism, or an emergent infectious disease may be daunting to school superintendents and principals. Today's educational leaders cannot avoid the challenge of disaster preparedness. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2006. Katrina and the Core Challenges of Disaster Response. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs30 (1).
Hurricane Katrina exposed serious weaknesses in the United States' emergency response capabilities. These problems demonstrate fundamental issues must be addressed if the country is to be ready for serious challenges. These problems arise from the scale of the event, its novelty, complexity of institutions involved, and jurisdictional problems in the response. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2006. Katrina as Prelude: Preparing for and Responding to Katrina-Class Disturbances in the United States. Testimony before the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, March 8, 2006. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management2 (3).
Hurricane Katrina was a severe natural disaster and a story of failures to construct systems in advance to produce better outcomes. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2006. Political Control and Operational Command: Building a Balanced Disaster Control System. Supplemental testimony submitted to the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, March 22, 2006.
Posing the question about centralized leadership in a catastrophic event presumes an overall set of issues and actions to be in charge of, and responsibility for all these issues can be taken together. Other strategic options are explored. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2005. A Command System for All Agencies? Crisis/Response Journal1 (2).
The United States is building a National Incident Management System (NIMS) to handle large-scale emergencies. This system has the potential to be flexible, geographically scalable, and adaptive to novel circumstances. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Jonathan Makler. 2005. On the Ground: Protecting America’s Roads and Transit from Terrorism. The Brookings Institution Series on Transportation Reform. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Jonathan Makler. 2005. Protecting America’s Highways and Transit Systems against Terrorism. In Bruce Katz and Robert Puentes (Eds.), Taking the High Road: A Transportation Agenda for Strengthening Metropolitan Areas. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
This book chapter reviews steps the federal government, states and localities have taken for highway and transit systems’ security. | More
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Daniel Curran. 2005. Recovery in Aceh: Towards A Strategy of Emergence. Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 05-082. | PDF
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard. 2004. Leadership in Crisis Situations. In James MacGregor Burns; George R. Goethals; and Georgia J. Sorenson (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Leadership(pp. 289-295). Great Barrington, MA: Bekrshire Publishing.
This essay explores questions critical for understanding and responding to crises in government and public affairs. | More
Herman B. "Dutch" Leonard and Arnold M. Howitt. 2004. The Heat of the Moment. Compass 2 (1), 19-23.
Crisis management teams bring together people from different institutional cultures. Managing their inevitable conflicts can be a leader’s most difficult challenge. | PDF
Arnold M. Howitt and Robyn L. Pangi. 2003. Intergovernmental Challenges of Preparing for Terrorism. In Arnold M. Howitt and Robyn L. Pangi (Eds.), Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
The Executive Session on Domestic Preparedness (co-sponsored by HKS’s Tabuman Center for State and Local Government and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs) operated from 1999-2003 with the sponsorship of the US Department of Justice. It brought together scholars and senior practitioners from federal, state, and local agencies to consider how the United States could prepare itself for the possibility of terrorist attack – and particularly to explore issues of intergovernmental cooperation in preparedness and response. This program produced a rich set of research papers, policy notes, and books on these topics.