HKS Affiliated Authors

Additional Authors:

  • Martina Viarengo


The education gap between men and women has closed, or has even reversed in many countries. Have countries also made progress in closing other gaps facing women? Using micro-level Census data for close to 40 countries, we examine several dimensions of gender disparity: we compare men and women's labor force participation (the labor force participation gap), married and single women's labor force participation (the marriage gap), and mothers' and non-mother's labor force participation (the motherhood gap). We show that there is significant heterogeneity among countries in terms of the size and the speed at which the gaps are changing.


Hausmann, R., Ganguli, I. & Viarengo, M., 2014. Closing the gender gap in education: What is the state of gaps in labour force participation for women, wives and mothers?. International Labor Review , 153 (2) , pp. 173-207.