In addition to facing earnings penalties because of their race and additional penalties because of their gender, black women appear to suffer a small but additional penalty because of the intersection of their race and gender. Black women have larger gender than race penalties. Although black men have greater racial penalties than do black women, black women experience larger earnings losses because in addition to racial penalties they face gender and race–gender interaction penalties.


Kim, Marlene. “Race and Gender Differences in the Earnings of Black Workers”. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 48.3 (2009): , 48, 3, 466-488. Web.