The power of Pan-Africanism as a guiding vision for the continent’s development is widely studied, mostly as an aspirational phenomenon. At worst, Pan-Africanism has often been seen as a poor imitation of American federalism or European integration. Both of these perceptions do not reflect the profound nature of the role that the ideology of Pan-Africanism played in shaping the continent’s economic transformation.
Juma, Calestous, and Francis Mangeni. "African Regional Economic Integration: The Emergence, Evolution, and Impact of Institutional Innovation." HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP18-003, January 2018.