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Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a serious health threat. Across India, 72.3 per cent of households use the traditional fuels of firewood, crop residue, or cow-dung cake (2001 Census). In rural areas, the reliance on traditional fuels is much higher, with 90 per cent of households using traditional fuels. The World Health Organization claims that IAP is the second largest environmental cause of childhood mortality in lower-income countries, after unsafe water. In response, the government and many NGOs have distributed “improved” or “clean” stoves that aim to reduce IAP concentrations.


Hanna, Rema. "Can Improved Stoves Improve Health?" India Express, May 12, 2009.