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In November 2022, the Ethiopian government signed a cease-fire with the Tigray People’s Liberation Front. The international community hailed the agreement as a possible turning point: the TPLF and Addis Ababa, along with smaller militias and Eritrean forces, had been fighting outright for two years; during this time, up to 600,000 people died—some directly from violence and others after losing access to clean water, food, and medical care. More than two million people were displaced from their homes, and every actor in the conflict was accused of war crimes, including mass killings, sexual violence, enforced starvation, and the destruction of educational and medical facilities.


Vinck, Patrick, Tadesse Simie Metekia, Geoff Dancy, Kathryn Sikkink, and Phuong N. Pham. "Can Justice Bring Peace to Ethiopia? How to Heal Divisions After Decades of War." Foreign Affairs (November 15, 2023).