HKS Authors

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Teresa and John Heinz Research Professor of Environmental Policy


Carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration (CCUS) is a set of technologies that capture carbon dioxide (CO2) at point source and either store the CO2 for permanent storage underground or utilize it in the economy such that carbon will not be released back into the atmosphere. Most national and international models indicate that CCUS will be needed, along with a range of other technologies, to economically reach net-zero emissions by 2050 in the United States. The scale of CO2 capture via CCUS required to achieve net-zero in the United States is 0.9-1.7 gigatons of CO2 per year by 2050 in most pathways, according to estimates by Princeton University’s Net-Zero America Project. This brief examines the national challenges related to deploying and scaling infrastructure to transport CO2 from capture sites to storage or utilization sites at a scale consistent with achieving net-zero by 2050.


Galeazzi, Clara, Grace Lam, and John P. Holdren. "Carbon capture, utilization, and storage: CO2 Transport costs and network infrastructure considerations for a net-zero United States." Environment and Natural Resources Program & Science Technology and Public Policy Program Paper Series, July 2023.