HKS Authors

See citation below for complete author information.

Director of the Taubman Center for State and Local Government
Robert W. Scrivner Professor of Social Policy


One in seven Americans received benefits from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in 2011, an all-time high. We analyze changes in program enrollment over the past two decades, quantifying the contributions of unemployment and state policy changes. Using instrumental variables to address measurement error, we estimate that a one percentage point increase in unemployment raises enrollment by 15 percent. Unemployment explains most of the decrease in enrollment in the late 1990s, state policy changes explain more of the increase in enrollment in the early 2000s, and unemployment explains most of the increase in enrollment in the aftermath of the Great Recession.


Ganong, Peter, and Jeffrey B. Liebman. "The Decline, Rebound, and Further Rise in Snap Enrollment: Disentangling Business Cycle Fluctuations and Policy Changes." American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 10.4 (November 2018).