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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses and service use, caregiver time, and cost outcomes. METHODS: We used national data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey linked to the National Health Interview Survey and a study-specific survey to estimate the annual utilization and costs for health care, school, ASD-related therapy, family-coordinated services, as well as caregiver time in children aged 3 to 17 years, with and without parent-reported ASD. Regression analyses estimated the association between ASD diagnosis and cost, controlling for child gender, age, race/ethnicity, insurance status, household income, country region and urban/rural classification, and non–ASD-related illnesses. RESULTS: Children with parent-reported ASD had higher levels of health care office visits and prescription drug use compared with children without ASD (P


Lavelle, Tara A., Milton C. Weinstein, Joseph P. Newhouse, Kerim Munir, Karen A. Kuhlthau, and Lisa A. Prosser. "The Economic Burden of Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders." Pediatrics 133.3 (March 2014): e520-e529.