Chandra, Amitabh, Dhruv Khullar, and Gail R. Wilensky. "The Economics of Graduate Medical Education." New England Journal of Medicine 370.25 (June 2014): 2357-2360.
The article argues that increasing direct medical education (DME) does little to offset cost of training physicians as residents pay full cost of their training and DME program only transfers money to recipient hospitals. It cites Nobel Laureate Gary Becker who explains that residents bear the full cost of their education by accepting lower wages while training. It suggests other options like selective loan forgiveness or vouchers to offset tuition for trainees choosing careers in primary care.