A reform of the Western Energy Imbalance Market should target the right problem. Import leakage is a problem; resource shuffling is a solution. Proposed modifications for the existing EIM design target the wrong problem and would work at cross purposes to the very reasons for the EIM’s existence. There is a better approach that would address the right problem and preserve the critical elements of the existing EIM design.
Hogan, William W. "An Efficient Western Energy Imbalance Market with Conflicting Carbon Policies." The Electricity Journal 30.10 (December 2017): 8-15.