Norris, Pippa. "Electoral Integrity and Electoral Systems." Oxford Handbook of Electoral Systems. Ed. Erik S. Herron, Robert J. Pekkanen, and Matthew S. Shugart. Oxford University Press, 2017.
Do formal electoral systems determine how far contests meet international standards of electoral integrity? This question touches on some classic debates in the literature seeking to understand the reasons underlying electoral reforms and the effects of these changes. To examine these issues, the first part of this chapter develops the conceptual framework to unpack the meaning of electoral integrity. The second part builds upon this understanding and sets out several alternative theoretical arguments of why list proportional representation (PR) electoral systems are generally believed to strengthen of electoral integrity more effectively than majoritarian rules. The third part explains the evidence and data, including how electoral integrity is measured worldwide through the rolling expert survey on Perceptions of Electoral Integrity. The fourth part presents the results of the analysis. The conclusion considers the findings and implications for strengthening electoral integrity and democracy around the globe.