Norris, Pippa. "Does the World Agree About Standards of Electoral Integrity? Evidence for the Diffusion of Global Norms." Electoral Studies 34.4 (2013): 576-588.
Drawing upon theories of the diffusion of global norms, this study addresses two issues: is there a shared consensus among experts about standards of electoral integrity? And do evaluations by elites reflect ‘Western/American’ values, or do they coincide with the judgments of ordinary people living in diverse cultures, suggesting the existence of internalized global norms? To consider these issues, Section 1 develops the theoretical framework concerning the diffusion of global norms. Section 2 reviews the cross-national measures of electoral integrity from both expert indices and mass surveys. Section 3 compares congruence among experts, and between mass and elite judgments. The results indicate, firstly, that many expert-based indices appear to be strongly inter-correlated, suggesting a broad consensus in evaluative rankings among elites. Moreover, secondly, public and elite evaluations are also correlated. The evidence therefore suggests the internalization of shared or universal norms, across mass and elite. The conclusion in Section 4 summarizes the broader lessons arising from the results and considers their implications for the future research.