Norris, Pippa. "Electoral Transitions: Stumbling out of the Gate." Democratization in the 21st Century: Reviving Transitology. Ed. Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou and Timothy D. Sisk.. Routledge, 2017, 49-74.
To understand the role of elections in transitions to democracy the first part of this study describes modernization theories of democratization, rooted in the classic accounts by Seymour Martin Lipset. The second part considers which structural factors from the previous research literature are plausible candidates to explain why elections succeed or fail, and also how the quality of elections can be best conceptualized and operationalized. The study then analyzes the cross-national evidence to analyze the process. The conclusion summarizes the main findings and considers their implications for electoral transitions from autocracy.