HKS Authors

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To mark the arrival of the 21st century, in 1999 the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine offered an Olympian preview of the decades ahead. The Academy foresaw a world in which “yesterday’s science fiction [would] enter the marketplace: animal cloning, talking electronic road maps installed in automobiles, powerful computers as small as a pack of cigarettes.” Its Report declared that America’s “uniquely powerful system for creating new knowledge and putting it to work for everyone’s benefit” had been the primary engine of productivity growth in the 20th century and would likewise be the single largest determinant for the 21st century.


Allison, Graham, Kevin Klyman, Karina Barbesino and Hugo Yen. "The Great Tech Rivalry: China vs the U.S." Avoiding Great Power War Project Paper Series, December 2021.