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The article discusses the factors that contributed to the growth in transportation problems in Jakarta, Indonesia. The key factors to the increase in transportation demand can be attributed to rapid economic development and urbanization, population growth, rise in average travel lengths, and the shift to motorized mode of transportation from non-motorized. The system of bus transportation services and improvement of TransJakarta services are discussed.


Gómez-Ibáñez, José A., Nick Hornig, and Justin Brandon. "The Gridlocked Commute: A Study of Jakarta's Transportation Problems." Harvard Asia Quarterly 13.4 (Winter 2011): 31-45.