Battilana, Julie, Marya Besharov, and Bjoern Mitzinneck. "On Hybrids and Hybrid Organizing: A Review and Roadmap for Future Research." The Sage Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism. Ed. Royston Greenwood, Christine Oliver, Thomas B. Lawrence, and Renate E. Meyer. Sage Publications, Ltd., 2017.
Hybrid organizations present a puzzle for institutional theory. Because they combine distinct institutional logics (Battilana & Dorado, 2010; Pache & Santos, 2013b), identities (Albert & Whetten, 1985; Glynn, 2000) and/or organizational forms (Ruef & Patterson, 2009; Tracey, Phillips, & Jarvis, 2011), hybrids seem to run counter to the core proposition of neo-institutionalism – that organizations must conform to institutionalized templates in order to be regarded as legitimate (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983; Greenwood & Hinings, 1993; Haveman & Rao, 2006). Yet organizational theorists, including institutionalists, have long recognized that organizations frequently combine seemingly incompatible elements (Albert & Whetten, 1985; Friedland & Alford, 1991; Meyer & Rowan, 1977). Particularly in the health and education sectors, hybrids have existed for centuries, and they continue to emerge.