When we think about infrastructure, two features stand out in most people's minds: the high magnitude of investment costs and the up-front concentrated nature of its incurrence versus the low per-user benefits with a usage pattern that is spread over the long economic life of infrastructure assets. Thus, the challenge of infrastructure financing may be described as that of creating mechanisms for cumulating and capitalizing the lifetime benefits from infrastructure assets to mobilize and justify its large up-front costs.
Deep, Akash. "Infrastructure Finance." Infrastructure Economics and Policy: International Perspectives. Ed. Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez and Zhi Liu. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2022, 213-238.