The United States must change the way it produces and uses energy by shifting away from its dependence on imported oil and coal-fired electricity and by increasing the efficiency with which energy is extracted/captured, converted, and utilized if it is to meet the urgent challenges facing the energy system, of which climate change and energy security are the most pressing. This will require the improvement of current technologies, and the development of new transformative ones, particularly if the transition to a new energy paradigm is going to be timely and cost-effective.
Narayanamurti, Venkatesh, Laura D. Anadon, and Ambuj D. Sagar. "Institutions for Energy Innovation: A Transformational Challenge." Energy Technology Innovation Policy Research Group, Belfer Center for Science & International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, September 2009.