HKS Authors

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The COVID-19 pandemic has exacted a historic toll on Americans’ health and longevity. It has also shaped socioeconomic inequalities along the lines of gender, race, ethnicity, nativity, and class in America. The effects of COVID-19 are evident in the stratified experiences of Americans in work, unemployment, and unpaid labor; in stark inequalities in wealth and income; in the historic expansions and retrenchments in social welfare spending; and in the increase in violence and changes in the criminal justice system. While there has been an outpouring of research on the social and economic consequences of COVID-19, far less work draws together research across these varied, but interrelated, domains. In this introduction, we provide a broad narrative of how the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded in America and reshaped, in some instances fleetingly and in others more permanently, the landscape of socioeconomic inequality in America.


Raphael, Steve and Daniel Schneider. "Introduction to The Socioeconomic Impacts of Covid-19." RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 9.3 (May 2023): 1-30.