HKS Authors

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By the summer of 1989, a series of problems were threatening China’s stability. Soaring inflation was undermining the economy at home while the violent suppression of Tiananmen Square demonstrations had left it largely a pariah state abroad. Yet within a few years the nation rebounded – beginning two decades of high economic growth, membership in the largest trading club in the world and international acceptance on the global stage.


Cunningham, Edward. "Jiang Zemin Propelled China’s Economic Rise in the World, Leaving his Successors to Deal with the Massive Inequality that Followed." The Conversation, December 1, 2022.