Liberal democracy has been difficult to institute and sustain in developing countries. This has to do both with ideational factors-the absence of a liberal tradition prior to electoral mobilization-and structural conditions-the prevalence of mass mobilization along identity rather than class cleavages. This paper considers the conditions under which liberal democracy emerges and speculates about its future in developing countries.
Rodrik, Dani. "Is Liberal Democracy Feasible in Developing Countries?" Studies in Comparative International Development 51.1 (March 2016): 50-59.