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Mark Warren grew up in a family that taught him a lot of lessons. In my third interview with Warren, as I probed for details of his life, he told me that his mother had been paralyzed from the time that he was four. She had contracted a disease from the live polio vaccine in a sugar cube. The producers of the vaccine did not realize that the serum carrying the vaccine, derived from monkeys, was infected with a myelitis similar to polio. Warren saw his dad work to raise three kids and take care of his mother. He saw his mom, a teacher, go on to acquire an MA in education with a specialization in special education, so that she was able to teach children with high needs at home. He saw his dad, a fisheries ecologist, write a book on Biology and Water Pollution Control, with a logo for the book designed by an indigenous woman and a Haida epigraph warning that greed would ruin the resources upon which we all depend. He learned from his family some lessons in everyday heroism. When problems arise, try harder. Learn to combine realism and hope.


Mansbridge, Jane, André Bächtiger, Dario Castiglione, Lisa Disch, John Gastil, Mark Brown, Simone Chambers, Rainer Forst, and Alfred Moore. "Mark Warren: Between Realism and Aspiration—Democracy for the Twenty-First Century." Political Science Today 3.3 (August 2023): 24-31.