Based on literature and expert interviews, we developed the Crisis Leader Efficacy in Assessing and Deciding scale (C-LEAD) to capture the efficacy of leaders to assess information and make decisions in a public health and safety crisis. In Studies 1 and 2, we find that C-LEAD predicts decision-making difficulty and confidence in a crisis better than a measure of general leadership efficacy. In Study 3, C-LEAD predicts greater motivation to lead in a crisis, more crisis leader role-taking, and more accurate performance while in a crisis leader role. These findings support the scale’s construct validity and broaden our theoretical understanding of the nature of crisis leader efficacy.
Hadley, Constance Noonan, Todd L. Pittinsky, S. Amy Sommer, and Weichun Zhu. "Measuring the Efficacy of Leaders to Assess Information and Make Decisions in a Crisis: The C-LEAD Scale." HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP09-021, July 2009.