Hadley, Constance Noonan, Todd L. Pittinsky, S. Amy Sommer, and Weichun Zhu. "Measuring the Efficacy of Leaders to Assess Information and Make Decisions in a Crisis: The C-LEAD Scale." HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP09-021, July 2009.
Based on literature and expert interviews, we developed the Crisis Leader Efficacy in Assessing and Deciding scale (C-LEAD) to capture the efficacy of leaders to assess information and make decisions in a public health and safety crisis. In Studies 1 and 2, we find that C-LEAD predicts decision-making difficulty and confidence in a crisis better than a measure of general leadership efficacy. In Study 3, C-LEAD predicts greater motivation to lead in a crisis, more crisis leader role-taking, and more accurate performance while in a crisis leader role. These findings support the scale’s construct validity and broaden our theoretical understanding of the nature of crisis leader efficacy.