Many contentious elections end in disputes about alleged fraud, irregularities, and
malpractices. How do we know when these claims are valid and when they are false complaints
from sore losers? This article describes a new dataset developed by the Electoral Integrity Project.
Based on a survey of election experts, the research provides new evidence to compare how
national contests around the world are meeting international standards of electoral integrity.
The questionnaire includes 49 key indicators clustered into 11 stages of the electoral cycle, as
well as generating an overall summary Perception of Electoral Integrity (PEI) 100-point index.
The evidence displays high levels of external validity, internal validity, and legitimacy. The PEI
datasets allow researchers to gauge the perceived quality of elections worldwide. This study
summarizes the PEI’s research design, compares the quality of election around the globe, and
illustrates how electoral integrity is linked with both democracy and development.
Norris, Pippa. "Measuring Electoral Integrity Around the World: A New Dataset." PS: Political Science & Politics 47.4 (October 2014): 1-10.