Nickerson, David W., Ryan D. Friedrich, and David C. King. "Mobilizing the Party Faithful: Results from a Statewide Turnout Experiment in Michigan." KSG Faculty Research Working Papers Series RWP04-018, April 2004.
Recent large-scale field experiments of get out the vote (GOTV) drives have been non-partisan and may not accurately capture the effectiveness of partisan campaign outreach. In the 2002 Michigan gubernatorial election, a large field experiment across 14 state house districts evaluated the cost effectiveness of three mobilization technologies utilized by the Michigan Democratic Party's Youth Coordinated Campaign: door hangers, volunteer phone calls, and face-to-face visits. The results indicate that all three GOTV strategies possess similar cost-effectiveness.