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HKS Authors

See citation below for complete author information.

Berthold Beitz Research Professor in Human Rights and International Affairs


The first part of this paper examines the rise and current state of environmental, social and governance (ESG) investing. The second addresses the conceptual and statistical weakness of the S domain. The third describes how drawing on internationally recognized human rights standards can strengthen the S and thereby improve the robustness and comparability of ESG aggregations. This should interest investors, issuers, and human rights advocates alike.


Ruggie, John Gerard, Emily K. Middleton. "Money, Millennials and Human Rights: Sustaining ‘Sustainable Investing’." Global Policy 10.1 (February 2019): 144-150.