This paper reviews Turkish experience with reform of the fixed line telecommunications industry. It provides an account of earlier incoherent attempts to privatize the incumbent operator in the absence of any regulatory framework or political consensus. It also describes the regulatory framework emergered in early 2000s and discusses the various political-economic and institutional factors behind its weak implementation, and hence its limited success in promoting competition.
Atiyas, Izak, and Pinar Dogan. "The Political Economy of Liberalization of Fixed Line Telecommunications in Turkey." Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government, Regulatory Policy Program Working Paper RPP-2009-01, July 2009.