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] Are similar patterns apparent in the European context? To consider these issues, Part I lays out the debate about the function of the Internet for pluralism and participation. Part II outlines the research design including content analysis of 134 websites, and survey data of users in the fifteen European Union member states from the Spring 2000 Eurobarometer. Part III examines the evidence for patterns of competition in European party websites while Part IV analyzes patterns of participation among European users. The conclusion summarizes the key results and considers the consequences for representative democracy and for public policy.