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The goal of this study is to explore predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, including socio-demographic factors, comorbidity, risk perception, and experience of discrimination, in a sample of the U.S. population. We used a cross-sectional online survey study design, implemented between 13–23 December 2020. The survey was limited to respondents residing in the USA, belonging to priority groups for vaccine distribution. Responses were received from 2650 individuals (response rate 84%) from all 50 states and Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and Guam. The five most represented states were California (13%), New York (10%), Texas (7%), Florida (6%), and Pennsylvania (4%). The majority of respondents were in the age category 25–44 years (66%), male (53%), and working in the healthcare sector (61%). Most were White and non-Hispanic (66%), followed by Black and non-Hispanic (14%) and Hispanic (8%) respondents. Experience with racial discrimination was a predictor of vaccine hesitancy. Those reporting racial discrimination had 21% increased odds of being at a higher level of hesitancy compared to those who did not report such experience (OR = 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.01–1.45). Communication and logistical aspects during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign need to be sensitive to individuals’ past-experience of racial discrimination in order to increase vaccine coverage.


Savoia, Elena, Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Beth Goldberg, Cynthia Miller-Idriss, Brian Hughes, Alberto Montrond, Juliette Kayyem, and Marcia A. Testa. "Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Socio-Demographics, Co-Morbidity, and Past Experience of Racial Discrimination." Vaccines 9.7 (July 2021): 767.